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Comparing Revolutions

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Jonathan Chung

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of Comparing Revolutions

Comparing Revolutions
By: Jonathan Chung
What is the definition of

"an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed."


The French Revolution
- Start Date: July 14,1789

- End Date: November 10,1799
Rulers in Charge
King Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
Why did this Revolution start?
The Nobles and the Clergy enjoyed lots of special privileges and were very wealthy. They did not need to pay taxes. This lead to a dispute between the different types of social classes in French society.
The common people (Middle Class, artisans, and peasants) paid heavy taxes and had to work hard to earn a small income. Some of them had little money.
The ideas of philosophies like Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu spread across France. Their ideas inspired the French people to go against the King.
The success of the American Revolution inspired and encouraged the French to fight for their freedom.
When Louis XVI dismissed the popular finance minister, Jacques Necker, the people were angry at Louis XVI for not improving the unfair tax system. Necker was dismissed due to his view that the clergy and aristocrats should be taxed.

A series of natural disasters caused the price of bread,which was the common people, staple diet, to rise.
Some Key Events During This Revolution
The Tennis Court Oath was officially sworn in the Royal Tennis Courts after the representatives of the Common People were locked out of the site of their meeting after breaking away from the French government and forming the National Assembly.
The French Revolutionary Wars of 1789 first started during the Fall of the Bastille. On July 14,1789, an angry Parisian mob attacked the Bastille, a fortress and a prison for storing political prisoners. The mob attacked a nearby military fortress where they stole thirty thousand muskets. Then, the mob then attacked the Bastille fortress and freed the prisoners trapped inside the fortress. The fall of the Bastille frightened King Louis XVI. So he declared the start of a revolution.
On August 4, 1789, the French government announced that it would officially abolish feudalism. On August 11, 1789, feudalism was officially abolished and aristocratic titles were removed and everyone was declared as "citizen".
Effects of the French Revolution
The end of French monarchy started on January 21, 1793 when King Louis XVI was executed by the guillotine. His wife was guillotined nine months later.
Napoleon Bonaparte becomes the First Consul of France. He was a dictator and was highly warlike, conquering most of the countries in Europe.
Declaration of the Right of Man was formed after the Revolution.This declaration gave all of the French people human rights and political freedom.
How did the French Revolution contribute to the development of democracy?
The French Revolution helped to end the "Divine Right Of Kings", that stated only the Kings had the power from God to decide on what is right. France became a republic in 1792, one year before King Louis XVI was executed. A new motto was developed at the end of the 19th century that stated, "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" or "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" in English. It is still the French motto today.
The American Revolution
Start Date: April 19, 1775
End Date: April 11, 1783
Rulers in Charge
George Washington
Lord Frederick North
Why did the American Revolution start?
The French and Indian Wars caused many Americans to lose their land to the French and Native Americans.
All printed documents, various licenses, and other goods were charged with a Stamp tax. Angry colonists rebelled and terrorized British tax collectors.
The Americans had their own independent way of thinking. They wanted to be a separate nation from the British rule.
Some Key Events Before and During This Revolution
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought in Cambridge, Massachusetts on June 17,1775. The American soldiers found out that the British Army was going to take over the hills of Boston. The British Army won the battle, but it was a Pyrrhic victory, due to the fact that they suffered many causalities. The Americans could have won the battle, but on their third and final try, they ran out of ammunition.
The government had large debts due to extravagant spending as well as numerous over ambitious wars
Louis XVI did not want to accept reforms. So this angered the people. People were dissatisfied with the rigid social class structure.
The Battle of Trenton was fought on December 26, 1776. It is the most famous battle in the Revolutionary War. Unlike the other revolutionary battles, which were fought by British soldiers, the Battle of Trenton was fought by the Hessian mercenaries of Germany, which were hired by the British government from the German government to fight for them. The Americans attacked the Hessian army by sneaking up on them while they were drunk and celebrating Christmas.
Social and Political Causes
Social and Political Causes
Political Cause
Political Cause
Polticial and Economic Problems
Economic Problems
Political Problems
Economic Problems
Social Problems
Social Problems
Economic Problems
Two years before the start of the American Revolution, a political protest called the Boston Tea Party was organized by a group of American patriots, called the Sons of Liberty. They disguised themselves as Native Americans and stormed a ship sent by the East India Company carrying tea. After ruining the tea by throwing crates of tea into the Boston Harbor, the British government acted harshly and shut down Boston Harbor until all the tea was paid for. The British government's anger started the American Revolutionary War.
Effects of the American Revolution
The American Declaration of Independence was signed, confirming that America is free from British rule.
The British were forced to sign the Treaty of Paris, a document outlining the terms of surrendering to America. This treaty meant that the British could only keep the lands that they conquered.
Even though America won the Revolutionary War, they were destroyed by foreign policy issues, newspaper wars and partisan politics. Their economy was destroyed because they did not have the British North Americans to trade with.
How did the American Revolution contribute to the development of democracy?
The American Revolution helped to develop democracy in both the United States and Canada. Today, America is not part of the Commonwealth Countries, or a country that has the Queen as their monarch. Canada was free from British rule in 1867 through the British North America Act, eighty four years after the American Revolution . Canada developed its own form of government.
The Iranian Revolution
Start Date: January 1978

End Date: February 1979
Rulers in Charge
Mohammad Roza Shah Pahlavi
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Why did this Revolution start?
Lots of Iranians rejected Mohammad Roza Shah Pahlavi's attempt to Westernize Iranian culture. The Iranians thought that he was a puppet of a non-Muslim country, the United States of America.
Social Causes
Economic Causes
The government handled the rising oil prices very badly. The government misused the money profited from rising oil prices and blamed it on the merchant class for its failing economy.

Political Causes
The Iranian secret police, SAVAK, was formed by the Shah. The SAVAK tortured and executed political activists. The SAVAK became infamous for their ruthless and harsh punishment.

Some Key Events During and After This Revolution
In 1978, the Iranians resort to rioting, starting labor strikes and civil unrest to protest the Shah's rule. In response, the Shah enforces martial law.
During the early hours of September 8, 1978, thousands of protesters gathered at Jaleh Square in Tehran, the capital of Iran. They demanded that Ayatollah Khomeini should be the new "Supreme Ruler". The Shah reacted harshly and appointed the Iranian Army to kill the protesters. Eighty-eight protesters were killed that day.
Nine months after the Iranian Revolution, a Iranian university student named Ebrahim Asgharzadeh rounded up students from different universities around Iran. On November 4, 1979, the university students, rounded up by Ebrahim Asgharzadeh and his friends, stormed the American Embassy taking 66 Americans hostage. The hostages were blindfolded and paraded in front of jeering crowds and television cameras. They were not allowed to speak or read. The hostages never knew when they were going to be murdered, tortured, or set free. Two years after the hostages were captured, they were released after Algeria intervened and negotiated with Iran.
Effects of the Iranian Revolution
Mohamad Reza Shah was sent into exile. After moving from country to country looking for a place to stay, he went to the United States for gallstone surgery. The Shah then lived in Cairo, Egypt until he died in 1980 due to a serious type of lymphoma.
The Shah's tomb in the Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo
Schools began to teach the Islamic Religion and the Qu'ran, which is the Islamic Holy Book. The Iranian government did not allow any other religion to be practiced.

The rulership of Iran moved from being a monarchy to an Islamic Republic.
The Iranian economy increased rapidly since the revolution.
As a result of the revolution, there was a change in women's fashion. The law forced the women to wear niqab (veils covering their faces,except for their eyes) in public. Men were forced to have beards.
A number of American military bases and CIA headquarters based in Iran were seized by Iranian government.
Abandoned American Embassy in Iran

How did the Iranian Revolution contribute to the development of democracy?
Today, Iran is a theocratic republic. The Supreme Ruler, or the President's high adviser was appointed by the Assembly of Experts. The power of the Shah was abolished, and now the citizens of Iran can vote for the President of Iran.
After the Iranian Revolution, all schools that were bilingual or taught another religion were forced to close. 40,000 teachers were expelled or were forced to retire. The textbooks in these schools were changed so that it incorporated the Islamic culture.
The Ukrainian Revolution
(a.k.a Euromaidan)
Start Date: November 21, 2013

End Date: Ongoing
Rulers in Charge
Arseniy Yatsenyuk
Viktor Yanukovych
Why did this Revolution start?
Viktor Yanukovych promised that he would sign a historical political trade agreement with the European Union (EU). But on November 21, 2013, Yanukovych decided to temporarily stop talks with the EU.
Flag of the European Union
If Yanukovych signed the peace deal with the European Union, then the European Union would ask Yanukovych to free his bitter rival, Yulia Tymoshenko. According to BBC news, she was imprisoned in 2011 for "criminally exceeding her powers when she agreed a gas deal with Russia". Yanukovych was angry with her because this deal disadvantaged Ukraine.
Political Reasons
Many people felt that Yanukovych's power rests too much on himself and less on parliament. They wanted Yanukovych and his administration to resign because of the unfair treatment of prisoners
Graffiti stating the word "Revolution" in Ukrainian outside the Cabinet of Ukraine
Economic Causes
The Ukrainian riot police, Бе́ркут, pronounced
(Ukrainian for "the Golden Eagle"), have been a target of the Ukrainian Revolution. The Бе́ркут have tortured innocent protestors and have killed many people through violent acts. Many people wanted the Бе́ркут to disband. The Бе́ркут were disbanded on February 25, 2014. The Бе́ркут are now considered part of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The rioters wanted the Constitution of Ukraine to be changed into the original 2004 Constitution. But the Speaker of Parliament refused to allow it.
The Ukranian Coat of Arms
Political Causes
Social Causes
Political Causes
Some Key Events During This Revolution
On December 1, 2013, the Бе́ркут started attacking protestors. Soon after the attack started, Russian Orthodox church leaders attacked the Ukrainian administrative building. About forty protestors were injured and fifty Бе́ркут officers sustained bloody injuries.
On December 8, 2013, Ukrainian protestors tore down a statue of Russian Communist leader Vladimir Lenin in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. The Ukrainian said that the statue was supposed to be torn down, but the members of "The Communist Party of Ukraine" refused and said that it was the last statue to remain standing.
From January 19 to February 23, there was a standoff between the Бе́ркут riot police and the Euromaidan protestors and rioters. After a series of standoffs, the protestors fled to Valeriy Lobanovskyi Dynamo Stadium on Hrushevskoho Street where most deaths took place. The standoff ended with one hundred and sixty three Бе́ркут riot police dead and six protestors injured.
Effects of the Ukrainian Revolution
The Ukrainian Revolution started the Crimea Crisis and the invasion of Ukraine by Russia. The battle still goes on until today.
Yulia Tymoshenko was released from prison after two and a half years in captivity. She was hailed with cheer by a crowd of protestors. She said that she was the guarantor of Ukraine which is free from governments that are trying to suppress their people.
The new Cabinet of Ukraine signed the European Union Association Treaty on March 21,2014.It was the document that Viktor Yanukovych refused to sign.
How did the Ukrainian Revolution contribute to the development of democracy?
The Ukrainian revolution helped to contribute to the development of democracy in Ukraine, even though the revolution is not over yet. Viktor Yanukovych resigned after being forced to sign the European Union Association Treaty. He was charged with "mass killing of civilians." Yanukovych was exiled to Russia where he is now being detained by the Russian government. Ukraine is repairing its wounds and is now going thought a process of healing.
Comparison and Contrast of the Revolutions
All of these revolutions were the same because they all involved major bloodshed before the revolution even started.
All revolutions start with corrupt government. Usually the government spends the money of the country on unnecessary items other than for the benefit of the people.
Each of these revolutions led to major changes in governmental, social, and economic structures.
The French Revolution changed social structure. The people in France did not have to be ruled by feudalism, and everyone had the title of "citizen".
The American Revolution changed the governmental structure. The British government did not have power over the Anglo-Americans. The Anglo-Americans formed a new nation, the United States of America.
The Iranian revolution changed the social structure of Iran. Iranians did not have to worry about being ruled under a dictator that wanted a country to be heavily westernized. They only wanted their country to be unique and maintain their culture and traditions.
Even though the Ukrainian Revolution is still going on , they were able to exile their dictator, Viktor Yanukovych. Today, they are recovering and building a better nation with a new ruler.
There were different groups fighting against each other in these rebellions, the loyalists versus the patriots in the American Revolution, the Moderates versus the Radicals in the French Revolution, the Imperial State of Iran versus the Revolutionary Council in the Iranian Revolution, and the Right Sector versus the Ukrainian government.
Although there might be some similarities, there are also some differences.
Revolutions helped the establishment of a completely new society. A new country, like the United States of America developed after the end of the revolution.

All revolutions have different time lengths. The Iranian Revolution only lasted for one year, while the French Revolution lasted for ten years.
Not every revolution has a Bill of Rights or declaration signed. The

Iranian Revolution, for example, ended with the Shah going into exile until he died. The American and French Revolution both had declarations signed - the Declaration of Rights in America and the Declaration of the Man and the Citizen in France.
The American Revolution was different from the other types of Revolutions mentioned because it did not involve any kind of dictatorial government, unlike the French, Iranian, and Ukrainian revolutions.
What is the difference between a Revolution, Civil War, Uprising, Coup d'etat, Rebellion, Revolt, Protest , or Demonstration?
1998 Indonesian Revolution
The American Civil War
Syrian Uprising
Napoleon's Coup d'etat
French June Rebellions
Peasants Revolt in England, 1381
2011 Occupy Vancouver Protests
1970 Demonstration against Oil Tankers in Peace Arch
The French Revolution led to a state-controlled church, as a result of the "Civil Constitution of the "Clergy". The power and influence were removed from the French Roman Catholic Church. In the other Revolutions, no religious bodies were involved.
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