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History of Ancient Rome
Transcript of History of Ancient Rome
The Romans won and destroyed the City of Carthage in 202 BC
this humiliation was witnessed by the King's young son...
The Capitoline she-wolf with the boys Romulus and Remus. Museo Nuovo in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
When the boys grew up, they decided to build the city on the
Tiber River where they were saved
Just like how the Minoans and Myceneaens were early Greeks, the
Estruscans were the early Romans.
They turned out to be a
on Roman society
, Rome was also protected by
Romulus eventually kills Remus and becomes Rome's first king for 40 years.
According to ancient historians, the
Romans eventually revolted
from the Etruscan kings and created a
Rome gets political
Rome's expansion would not have been possible without its
With such a successful government, the
Roman society began to bloom!
With a growing population, the Romans needed to acquire more land through
conquering its neighbors.
261 - 146 BC
The Romans copied an abandoned Carthaginian Ship, and created a fleet.
In 241 BC, they won the naval battle and captured the islands of Sicily and Sardinia
The Carthaginian King was forced to sign a treaty surrendering his kingdom's treasury.
Hannibal led his
Elephant led army
in 218 BC across the Alps and attacked Rome. Battle after battle
Rome was defeated
In response the Romans, in a brilliant move, sailed to Africa and
invaded the kingdom of Carthage
the Army dominated the State
In his army, land was
given to loyal soldiers by the General
away from the Republic. Credited to having an influential role in
ending the Republic, and starting the Empire
In 58 BCE, Caesar attacks Gaul and wins
, giving him great wealth and power
In 49 BCE,
, ordered him to return to Rome and leave his army.
Pompey and the Senate believed Caesar had
grown too powerful
But Caesar wanted
power. Against Roman law, he crossed the
, and captured Rome. Pompey and his followers,
fled to Greece
where Caesar followed and defeated them.
Pompey was eventually
assassinated in Egypt
by Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII. After returning to Rome victorious, Julius Caesar
won the Roman people's loyalty
Overcome with confidence, he asked to be elected
Dictator for Life
A series of struggles to gain power erupted.
this period ended when
, Caesar's nephew and heir,
in Egypt, and was elected Sole Roman Leader
- Solved the problems with the warring armies by
proclaiming himself the sole leader
- Distributed grains and supplied Rome with clean water
through the building of the Aqueducts
- He added 800 miles of Roman roads
- He staged the most lavish games.
14 - 68 AD
2nd Century AD
- A series of unfit emperors.
- Romans lost their identity when Caracalla murdered
thousands of Romans
- They turned to cults, as the cult of the emperor
A PERIOD OF MILITARY ANARCHY
Valerian went to negotiate with the Persians.
He was captured, and forced to his knees only to be stepped on by the King. He was humiliated, killed, and flayed.
this marked the Beginning of the End of the Roman Empire
the first Christian emperor, made a momentous decision that changed the Roman Empire forever. In fear of the invading
, he moved the capital from
Rome to Constantinople
To better manage such a huge empire,
divided the empire into
. The East & West.
Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople in the East
CHRISTIANITY DECLARED AS A STATE RELIGION
VISIGOTHS PLUNDER ROME
Greek colonizers traveled across the Mediterranean to uncharted territories.
They arrived in the northern part of modern day
The Chimaera of Arezzo, about 400-375 B.C. Bronze
Etruscan Ring, 4th century BC-3rd century BC
Urn, End of the 3rd c. B.C., Alabaster. From Sarteano (Siena). Siena, National Archaeological Museum
The “Sarcophagus of the Spouses”, Etruscan, c. 520-510 BCE, Louvre, Paris.
Tomb of the Triclinium
From the Tomb of the Triclinio, Tarquinia
The Tomb of Capitelli
Working together the plebeians and the patricians create a
The Senate was a body of
who advised elected officials, controlled finances, and handled all foreign relations
A Republic is...
This gave the Roman citizens
everyone has a say on how their city is run
Marble relief known as Domitius Ahenobarbus relief, detail of military census, from Rome, Campo Marzio, Temple of Neptune
Foundation of the Republic
detail of Suicide of Lucretia 1515 - Tiziano Vecellio
ROME'S expansion draws conflict with
, a powerful city in Africa
The Rape of Lucretia, Felice Ficherelli (1603–1660)
3rd Century BC
2nd Century BC
The Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean
Dazzled by this, the Romans did the unthinkable.
They voluntarily voted Caesar the absolute power of a dictator
IDES OF MARCH
THE PUBLIC WAS
. THEIR CHAMPION WAS MURDERED BY A FEW ARISTOCRATS.
, Caesar's nephews, then waged a
to avenge Caesar. These wars effectively
ENDED the Roman Republic
Julius Caesar became the most
powerful man in the history of the Republic
. So in 44 BC, he was invited by the senate to explain his actions, and was assassinated -
stabbed to death 23 times...
CENTURY OF DOUBT
is now an
in 27 BC, the Senate gave him
ROME'S FIRST EMPEROR
1 AD, Jesus Christ was born
33 AD, Jesus Christ was crucified
Nativity by Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656)
The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I, pen and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, ca. 1521
Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, c. 1000
Constantinople, 1576, Cities of the World, Georg Braun, Franz Hogenberg and Joris Hoefnagel
Mosaic depicting theater masks Roman 2nd century
Vision of the Cross, Raphael, (aka Raffaello Sanzio) (1483-1520)
Statue of Constantine The Great, outside York Minster
IN HOC SIGNO VINCES
Rome could no longer rule by military force
They have to negotiate and accomodate
wanted a dignified coexistence
leader of the Visigoths
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Built Rome's first
walls and sewers
gladiator games and chariot races
alphabet and number system
According to legend, Rome was built by twin brothers named
. These were two orphan boys who were raised by a
until they were discovered and taken in by a shepherd.
To the north, Rome was protected by the
high mountains of the Alps
. To the south, east, and west, the
provided both protection and a means of transportation through ships
A new type of government in which
govern the state
In the early days of the Republic, the heads of a few rich and powerful families, known as
, controlled every aspect of society:
, or the common people constantly challenged the Patricians for
power and influence
in the Republic.
Eventually when invaders threatened Rome in 494 BCE, the
plebeians refused to fight for the city
until their rights were broadened.
Realizing they could not have an army without the plebeians, the patricians
gave in to the people
The plebeians were allowed to elect
who protected the people from unjust treatment. They had the right to
ban laws that were harmful
The Republican constitution ended up creating three major parts of government, with the most
important being the Senate
Instead of a king, the
Romans elected two Consuls
, powerful men who were chief executives and
commanders of the military
The Roman army was made up of powerful units called
led by influential
All men between the ages of 17 and 46 were required to join the military
The wars are sparked by a feud over the island of
In 285 AD,
After the fall of Rome, Constantinople became the
new political and cultural center of the Empire
for another thousand years. It was the largest and wealthiest European city throughout the
Stories tell of a
jewish preacher from Nazareth
who had the ability to draw huge crowds of thousands. They gathered and listened to his words all day eating nothing.
His name was Jesus of Nazareth
Over time his teachings developed into a new religion:
To the Jews, Jesus was the
Messiah, or a spiritual leader
who would restore the ancient kingdom of Israel and bring peace to the world.
He was arrested, tried, and crucified. His followers say that he resurrected from the dead three days later.
Jesus of Nazareth preached a
peace, love, forgiveness, mercy, and charity
. Jesus preached that the poor would enjoy a beautiful heaven while the rich would suffer in hell. For obvious reasons he became extremely popular with the crowds
which alarmed the Roman authorities
He also changed the
requirements for joining the army
. He now took anybody willing, regardless of socioeconomic status
The First Triumvirate:
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
To increase his power and influence Caesar created a political alliance with two other powerful men to create..
Successful general and one of the
richest men in history
general and politician
Rich and intelligent general and politician
Julia dies giving birth
Crassus dies in battle