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History of Ancient Rome

World History
by

Daniel Kim

on 30 September 2015

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Transcript of History of Ancient Rome

Hannibal returned and fought at the Battle of Zama.
The Romans won and destroyed the City of Carthage in 202 BC
this humiliation was witnessed by the King's young son...
HANNIBAL
HISTORY
OF
ANCIENT
ROME

753 BC
The Capitoline she-wolf with the boys Romulus and Remus. Museo Nuovo in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
Romulus
& Remus
When the boys grew up, they decided to build the city on the
Tiber River where they were saved
800 BC
Etruscan Civilization
Just like how the Minoans and Myceneaens were early Greeks, the
Estruscans were the early Romans.
They turned out to be a
heavy influence
on Roman society
Just like
Ancient Egypt
, Rome was also protected by
geographic barriers.
Romulus eventually kills Remus and becomes Rome's first king for 40 years.
According to ancient historians, the
Romans eventually revolted
from the Etruscan kings and created a
republic
The Senate
and Constitution
Rome gets political
Roman Expansion
Rome's expansion would not have been possible without its
powerful army
Roman
Legion
Carthage
With such a successful government, the
Roman society began to bloom!
With a growing population, the Romans needed to acquire more land through
conquering its neighbors.
PUNIC
WARS

261 - 146 BC
The Romans copied an abandoned Carthaginian Ship, and created a fleet.
In 241 BC, they won the naval battle and captured the islands of Sicily and Sardinia
The Carthaginian King was forced to sign a treaty surrendering his kingdom's treasury.
Hannibal led his
Elephant led army
in 218 BC across the Alps and attacked Rome. Battle after battle
Rome was defeated
.
204 BC
In response the Romans, in a brilliant move, sailed to Africa and
invaded the kingdom of Carthage

204 BC
Gaius Marius
the Army dominated the State
In his army, land was
given to loyal soldiers by the General
which shifted
loyalty
away from the Republic. Credited to having an influential role in
ending the Republic, and starting the Empire
In 58 BCE, Caesar attacks Gaul and wins
major battles
, giving him great wealth and power
JULIUS
CEASAR

31 BC
In 49 BCE,
Pompey
, Caesar's
chief rival
, ordered him to return to Rome and leave his army.

Pompey and the Senate believed Caesar had
grown too powerful
But Caesar wanted
absolute
power. Against Roman law, he crossed the
Rubicon river
with the
13th legion
, and captured Rome. Pompey and his followers,
fled to Greece
where Caesar followed and defeated them.
Pompey was eventually
assassinated in Egypt
by Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII. After returning to Rome victorious, Julius Caesar
won the Roman people's loyalty
.
Overcome with confidence, he asked to be elected
Dictator for Life
.
A series of struggles to gain power erupted.
this period ended when
Octavian
, Caesar's nephew and heir,
defeated
Mark Antony
and
Cleopatra
in Egypt, and was elected Sole Roman Leader
- Solved the problems with the warring armies by
proclaiming himself the sole leader

- Distributed grains and supplied Rome with clean water
through the building of the Aqueducts

- He added 800 miles of Roman roads

- He staged the most lavish games.
Tiberius
Caligula
Nero
Trajan
Hadrian
Julio-Claudians Dynasty
Flavian Dynasty
14 - 68 AD
2nd Century AD
- A series of unfit emperors.
- Romans lost their identity when Caracalla murdered
thousands of Romans
- They turned to cults, as the cult of the emperor
declines.
3rd
Century
AD

A PERIOD OF MILITARY ANARCHY
260 AD
Valerian went to negotiate with the Persians.
He was captured, and forced to his knees only to be stepped on by the King. He was humiliated, killed, and flayed.
this marked the Beginning of the End of the Roman Empire
the
Emperor Constantine,
the first Christian emperor, made a momentous decision that changed the Roman Empire forever. In fear of the invading
Germanic tribes
, he moved the capital from
Rome to Constantinople
.
312 AD
To better manage such a huge empire,
Diocletian
divided the empire into
two parts
. The East & West.
331 AD
Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople in the East
CHRISTIANITY DECLARED AS A STATE RELIGION
Senate
410 AD
455 AD
VISIGOTHS PLUNDER ROME
THE
VANDALS
SACK ROME
Greek colonizers traveled across the Mediterranean to uncharted territories.
They arrived in the northern part of modern day
Italy.
The Chimaera of Arezzo, about 400-375 B.C. Bronze
Etruscan Ring, 4th century BC-3rd century BC
Urn, End of the 3rd c. B.C., Alabaster. From Sarteano (Siena). Siena, National Archaeological Museum
The “Sarcophagus of the Spouses”, Etruscan, c. 520-510 BCE, Louvre, Paris.
Tomb of the Triclinium
From the Tomb of the Triclinio, Tarquinia
The Tomb of Capitelli
Working together the plebeians and the patricians create a
Constitution
, or
political structure.
The Senate was a body of
300 members
who advised elected officials, controlled finances, and handled all foreign relations
A Republic is...
This gave the Roman citizens
RIGHTS
.
everyone has a say on how their city is run
Marble relief known as Domitius Ahenobarbus relief, detail of military census, from Rome, Campo Marzio, Temple of Neptune
Foundation of the Republic
detail of Suicide of Lucretia 1515 - Tiziano Vecellio
ROME'S expansion draws conflict with
Carthage
, a powerful city in Africa
The Rape of Lucretia, Felice Ficherelli (1603–1660)
3rd Century BC
2nd Century BC
The Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean
Dazzled by this, the Romans did the unthinkable.
They voluntarily voted Caesar the absolute power of a dictator
.
IDES OF MARCH
THE PUBLIC WAS
OUTRAGED
. THEIR CHAMPION WAS MURDERED BY A FEW ARISTOCRATS.
Mark Antony
and
Octavian
, Caesar's nephews, then waged a
Civil war
to avenge Caesar. These wars effectively
ENDED the Roman Republic
...
Julius Caesar became the most
powerful man in the history of the Republic
. So in 44 BC, he was invited by the senate to explain his actions, and was assassinated -
stabbed to death 23 times...
Claudius
Vespanian
Nerva
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius
CENTURY OF DOUBT
REPUBLIC
the
EMPIRE
is now an
in 27 BC, the Senate gave him
absolute power
.
AUGUSTUS
ROME'S FIRST EMPEROR
1 AD, Jesus Christ was born
33 AD, Jesus Christ was crucified
Nativity by Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656)
The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I, pen and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger, ca. 1521
Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, c. 1000
Constantinople, 1576, Cities of the World, Georg Braun, Franz Hogenberg and Joris Hoefnagel
Mosaic depicting theater masks Roman 2nd century
DIOCLETIAN
284 AD
4TH CENTURY
Vision of the Cross, Raphael, (aka Raffaello Sanzio) (1483-1520)
Statue of Constantine The Great, outside York Minster
IN HOC SIGNO VINCES
CONSTANTINE
331 AD
Rome could no longer rule by military force
They have to negotiate and accomodate
the Barbarians.
ALARIC
wanted a dignified coexistence
leader of the Visigoths
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
The Etruscans:
Built Rome's first
walls and sewers
Introduced
gladiator games and chariot races
Helped shape
government
Introduced the
alphabet and number system
According to legend, Rome was built by twin brothers named
Romulus
and
Remus
. These were two orphan boys who were raised by a
she-wolf
until they were discovered and taken in by a shepherd.
To the north, Rome was protected by the
high mountains of the Alps
. To the south, east, and west, the
Mediterranean Sea
provided both protection and a means of transportation through ships
A new type of government in which
elected officials
govern the state
In the early days of the Republic, the heads of a few rich and powerful families, known as
Patricians
, controlled every aspect of society:
Politics
Military
Economics
Religion
The
Plebeians
, or the common people constantly challenged the Patricians for
power and influence
in the Republic.
Eventually when invaders threatened Rome in 494 BCE, the
plebeians refused to fight for the city

until their rights were broadened.
Realizing they could not have an army without the plebeians, the patricians
gave in to the people
.

The plebeians were allowed to elect
Tribunes
who protected the people from unjust treatment. They had the right to
veto
, or
ban laws that were harmful
The Republican constitution ended up creating three major parts of government, with the most
important being the Senate
Instead of a king, the
Romans elected two Consuls
, powerful men who were chief executives and
commanders of the military
The Roman army was made up of powerful units called
legions
led by influential
Centurions
All men between the ages of 17 and 46 were required to join the military
The wars are sparked by a feud over the island of
Sicily
Rome
Carthage
In 285 AD,
After the fall of Rome, Constantinople became the
new political and cultural center of the Empire
for another thousand years. It was the largest and wealthiest European city throughout the
Middle Ages
.
Stories tell of a
jewish preacher from Nazareth
who had the ability to draw huge crowds of thousands. They gathered and listened to his words all day eating nothing.
His name was Jesus of Nazareth
.
Over time his teachings developed into a new religion:
Christianity.
To the Jews, Jesus was the
Messiah, or a spiritual leader
who would restore the ancient kingdom of Israel and bring peace to the world.
He was arrested, tried, and crucified. His followers say that he resurrected from the dead three days later.
Jesus of Nazareth preached a
Monotheistic religion
of
peace, love, forgiveness, mercy, and charity
. Jesus preached that the poor would enjoy a beautiful heaven while the rich would suffer in hell. For obvious reasons he became extremely popular with the crowds
which alarmed the Roman authorities
.
Minoans
and
Mycenaean
Ancient Greece
Etruscans
Ancient Rome
Veto Powers!
He also changed the
requirements for joining the army
. He now took anybody willing, regardless of socioeconomic status
The First Triumvirate:
Julius Caesar
Marcus Crassus
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
"Pompey"
To increase his power and influence Caesar created a political alliance with two other powerful men to create..
Successful general and one of the
richest men in history
Fantastically popular
general and politician
Rich and intelligent general and politician
Julia dies giving birth
Crassus dies in battle
Full transcript