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Hollywood and Thor: The Dark World

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Chalbi Productions

on 12 February 2018

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Transcript of Hollywood and Thor: The Dark World

American films are not about making 'art'.
Disney is one of the biggest film studios in the world.

Most box office films are now adaptations.
Adaptations
Production companies (studio) are the people who make the actual film.
After the film has been produced, the second stage in the process is known as the
DISTRIBUTION
stage.
Distribution
Marketing the film is a hugely important process.
Marketing
Trailers
It's not just the film that makes money.
Outside of the Film
The final step in the film process is the
EXHIBITION
stage.
Exhibition
It's all about what films can bring in the biggest box office figures.
From the beginning of film, especially during what's known as the Studio System, producers and film companies realised that the best way to make money was simple.
Own everything.
they own several subsidiaries, in a variety of different media areas.
Because Disney own Marvel, they didn't have to pay anything for the rights to produce Thor 2.

Some film studios will pay other companies to make or 'co-produce' the films with them.
Because Disney own Marvel they can use their studios and resources to make the film rather than their own.
They didn't have to pay anyone to produce Thor 2 for them.
Cost for Disney so far: $0
Cost for Disney so far: $0
This translates as getting the film 'out there'.
It works on two levels:
Shipping the film to other countries.
Marketing the film so that audiences are aware of it, so will go and see it.
Marketers have to ensure that:
1. the product looks appealing and is sold appropriately.

2. That the marketing materials reach the right audiences; where they are placed is very important.
Marketing involves everything from posters, trailers, television appearances, premieres, etc.
The genre is hugely popular at the moment and it links to The Avengers
Television Appearances
Actors and actresses will often feature in television programmes to promote the film, i.e. Graham Norton.
For Thor, the cast appeared on Good Morning America several times.
Good Morning America is shown on ABC.
Television Appearances
ABC is a subsidiary of Disney.
Cost for Disney so far: $0
Advertising spots for trailers can be very expensive.
Marketers have to make sure that the trailers are seen by the 'right' people.
Luckily for Disney, they own several TV channels.
This means they can show what they want in advertisement breaks.
Good Morning America also covered the premiere of the film.
Clothing, artwork, books, etc. can all make money if carrying the film's logo.
it's sold in Disney Stores all over the world.
Disney doesn't have to pay any retailers to stock their products.
Cost for Disney so far: $0
Soundtracks
Major film's often have a high profile song attached to it, that can also make money through CD/download sales.
A music soundtrack album was released alongside the film.
The label which released the soundtrack is Marvel Music.
Marvel Music is a subsidiary of Disney.
Cost to Disney so far: $0.
Disney put Maleficent posters in it's magazines.
Put picture of magazine!
This is where the film is shown to audiences.
This can be advanced screenings, premieres, cinema release, online, and DVD/Blu-ray sales.
After films have been shown in the cinema, they can be broadcast on television, the profits of which the studio shares with the broadcaster.
Disney can show Thor 2 on any of its television channels.
Cost to Disney: $0
Online Viewing
Viewing films on the internet is becoming increasingly popular.
Legitimate streaming sites like Netflix and LoveFilm make huge profits.

They have to buy films from studios, but make the money back in profits from subscriptions.
One of the leading streaming sites in America is Hulu.
This is part-owned by Disney.
Cost to Disney: $0
Vertical Integration
Vertical integration is where a production company owns all three stages of the film making process.
Production
Distribution
Exhibition
Competition
Although a film can be produced and marketed well, there is no guarantee that it will be a success.
This is usually down to the competition > other films released at the same time.
x-men
When these are made, the studio behind them have to pay for the original source material.
These can be books, comics, games, true stories, and previous films.
Exhibition: TV
Synergy is more than one company/product working together to make a profit.
Horizontal Integration is where a conglomerate owns more than one company in the same sector/area.
smaller studio
smaller studio
Horizontal Integration
smaller studio
Film studio
Horizontal Integration is where a conglomerate owns more than one company in the same sector/area.
Horizontal Integration
cost for disney: $0
The Production Company

American films (aka Hollywood) dominate the global film industry.
The Film Industry
Go on to the vue (printworks) Manchester website
Hollywood is dominated by six major studios who own several smaller studios.
These create an
oligopoly
in hollywood
oligopoly
Where 'monopoly' means owned by
one
, an 'oligopoly' means owned by a few.
They are known as
the big six
They own so many companies, that it becomes harder for smaller, or independent, companies to achieve success.
They hold a lot of power in Hollywood, mainly because of who owns them.
TimeWarner
News Corp
viacom
sony
comcast
disney
All of these companies are
multinational conglomerates
Conglomerate:
1. a cohering mass; cluster.
2. One business owning subsidiaries in several different areas which can all link together…

example
News corp is one of the biggest companies in the world
it is a international conglomerate
It owns companies in different markets/areas and all over the world
It is owned by Rupert Murdoch
news corp
2oth century fox
The Sun
The Times
Sunday Times
Press Association
harper collins
bskyb
fox channels globally
star tv
myspace
hulu
Ten smaller companies
app. 60
All of these are called
subsidiaries
When they work together it creates
SYNERGY
TAKE FIVE MINUTES NOW, TO MAKE SURE YOU HAVE WRITTEN DOWN AN ACCURATE EXPLANATION OF THE KEY TERMS SO FAR.
KEY TERMS
Oligopoly
The Big Six
Multinational Conglomerate
Subsidiary
Synergy
In the film industry, they own:
Lucas Films
marvel
pixar
These companies have all been bought by Disney in the past ten years for a total of $15.45 billion.
Why?
thor 2 is a Marvel production as it was a Marvel Comic.
it is an adaptation
This means they can continue using their facilities to make Disney products
The film has some of the world's biggest stars in its cast.
The show is one of America's most watched morning shows, reaching a huge audience.
The studio has to pay a record label to write, produce, and release the soundtrack for them.

Usually, comic book films are released in summer as blockbusters.
However, Thor 2 was released on November 8th 2013.
The big six often use the multinational conglomerate's (who own them) subsidiaries to create synergy.
marvel
trailers on disney channels
hulu
abc tv
the structure of the film industry
Thor: the dark world case study

These companies make Hollywood into an
Oligopoly
Star Wars franchise - 7 more films
Success of comic book films in 2000s - X-Men franchise made $1 billion for Fox
Buying out their main competition for family audience - Finding Nemo (2003) highest grossing G rated film at the time.
This saves them money.
If Fox wanted to adapt a Marvel comic, they would have to buy the rights from Disney.
Marketing
The appeal of The Dark World works in three ways.
The source material has a huge fan base and the characters are 'stars' themselves.
Synergy
FILM
TELEVISION
MERCHANDISE
GAMES
INTERNET
PUBLISHING
Marvel
Disney Magazines: Adverts
Marvel: Re-release comics/ Adapt film to graphic novel.
Show trailers on ESPN, ABC, and Disney Channels
Sell in Disney stores
Advertise toys on Disney channels
Disney Interactive Studios
Advertise on Disney sites
Exhibit film on Hulu after cinema release
Unless they're sold online from the film company's website, the studio has to pay shops to sell their merchandise.
The UK box office top 10 in full:

1. Thor: The Dark World - £8,668,172
2. Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2 - £2,074,667
3. Captain Phillips - £1,622,925
4. Philomena - £1,509,726
5. Turbo - £1,351,821
6. Jackass: Bad Grandpa - £975,121
7. Ender's Game - £469,112
8. Krrish 3 - £408,624
9. One Chance - £339,722
10. Escape Plan - £185,957

Production context
Discussing Thor's production context is simple
It is made by one of the Big Six Oligopoly
It is made by a vertically and horizontally integrated company
Therefore, it is expected to be a success.
It has had a resurgence since the early 2000s and has grown in popularity over the past decade with it currently being the most popular genre globally.
The genre was popular during the 1930s and 40s, but turmoil in the comic book industry prevented this from being sustained.
Comic book films make a lot of money at the Box Office.
Money Makers
Why do you think comic book films are so popular?
The Comic Book Genre
Money Makers
Although they are costly to make, producers and studios continue to release big budget comic book blockbusters.
Because they are adapted from comic books they have an immediate audience
Because the plot is simple to understand and relies on SFX
This is often a global audience...
They don't just make profit from the film
They make huge amounts from the wide range of merchandise associated with it
If the original film is successful
It becomes a franchise
So comic book films are one of the most profitable genres in Hollywood.
financial determinants
The film industry is a huge contributor to the global economy.
in 2010, the usa made 31.8 billion in revenue
In America, the film industry are responsible for 2.2 million jobs
Giving a film the green light is a huge financial risk.
It is a significant upfront investment
$170 million investment from Disney.
Financial determinants basically the monetary factors that studios will take into account.
When deciding whether or not to invest, what determinants will Disney have taken into account?
Financial Determinants
Franchise
link to avengers
star appeal
revenue of other comic book films
genre
technology
marvel - quality assurance mark
synergy and opportunities for more profits
The British tax system (HMRC) offers American films tax incentives so that they will film in Britain.
Tax Incentives
This means that studios can save millions in production cost just by using our facilities and staff
There are several rules that they have to follow in order to qualify.
they can claim up to 20% of their british costs back
1. at least 25% of the films budget must be spent in the uk
2. 70% of the film's labour cost must be paid to european workers
3. the film must qualify as a british film
Disney has earned £167 million since 2007 in tax relief
£1.1 billion was paid to 1050 films between 07-13
Thor 2 is believed to have set a record by receiving 22.4 million in tax credit.
the cultural test
In order to qualify as a British film, the film must pass 'The Cultural Test' set by the BFI
Parts A: Cultural Content
Part B: Cultural Contribution
Part C: Cultural Hubs
D: Cultural Practitioners
Pass Mark
In order to pass, the film must achieve 18 points.

In pairs, use the sheet to identify whether Thor 2 would pass the Cultural Test.

You can use the internet and the resource pack.

How many points would Thor TDW get?
Task Two: Marvel Moneymakers
Understand the relationship between films and their production context.
Learning Aim:
select friday's show times
make a list in word of each film showing
use the internet to find out each film's country
count how many are british, american and 'foreign'.
turn these into percentages
save this document!
Some of these factors are what cause films to be given the greenlight.




To evidence this, you will analyse the highest grossing films list.
This is because these films have proven to be successful at the Box Office.
Use the list to count:
Comic book genre
franchises
technology
turn these into percentages
highest grossing
uk tax breaks
financial determinants
Whilst you are looking: write down the main production studio for each film.
how many are made by the big six?
Independent Film
What are some of the differences between mainstream (big six) cinema, and independent film?
What is an independent film?
An independent film or indie film is a feature film that is produced outside of the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment agencies.

Independent films are distinguishable by their content and style, often the filmmakers' personal artistic vision, and with considerably lower budgets than major studio movies.



An independent film production can rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and distribution.

Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution (theatrical or retail release).

Generally, the marketing of independent films is characterized by limited release, but can also have major marketing campaigns and a wide release.
• Independent films may struggle to attract funding or distribution because they may have anti-establishment content or experimental style.
• Its products, practices and values are different to what is culturally dominant.
There are specialist alternative distributors (Optimum Releasing, Artificial Eye, Blue Dolphin) and a network of “art-house” cinemas (HOME, Manchester) which exhibit less mainstream products.
Funding may come from non-commercial sources, such as the Film Council’s New Cinema Fund, the BFI, television, and local councils.
INDEPENDENT FILM
BEST PICTURE OSCAR
BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR
BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY
OSCARS
BOX OFFICE:
$65,046,687
ROTTEN TOMATOES:
98%
CINEMA RELEASE:
1,564 theaters
THOR 2: 3,841 theaters
THOR 2: $644,571,402
BUDGET:
$4 MILLION
THOR 2: $170 MILLION
BRITISH FILM
GENRES: PERIOD, HISTORICAL, SOCIAL REALISM
LOW BUDGET: FUNDING FROM DIFFERENT PLACES
AMERICAN DISTRIBUTORS (HARRY POTTER, BOND)
PRODUCTION FACILITIES & SFX: LEAVESDEN, PINEWOOD
ARTISTIC FILMS: DO WELL AT FESTIVALS, NOT WITH AUDIENCES
TODAY
CREATE A POSTER FOR YOUR GIVEN INDUSTRY
INCLUDE IMAGES AND FACTS THAT REPRESENT THE PRODUCTION CONTEXT
THIS COULD BE ICONIC FILMS, AWARDS, ACTORS AND DIRECTORS
QUOTES/ STATISTICS/ KEY TERMINOLOGY
Graded on your visuals, but primarily how well you represent your industry
Both your poster and grade will be displayed
GROUPS
LUKE
OLIVER
RHYS
SHAYLAH
DYLAN H
RYAN
PETE
PAIGE
CHILTON
HOLLY
CALLIE
LUCY
ALICIA
ELIZABETH

HOLLYWOOD
JACK JASON MATT
HOLLYWOOD
INDIE
INDIE
BRITISH
BRITISH
MOONLIGHT
idb
tHOR
THE TASK
Understand the relationship between films and their production context.
Learning Aim:
WAS THERE FOR idb OR MOONLIGHT?
KEY POINTERS:
ALWAYS REFER BACK TO THE QUESTION
COMPARE THE THREE FILMS THROUGHOUT
BACK UP YOUR POINTS WITH QUOTES FROM ARTICLES (BOOKLET) AND STATISTICS (YOUR RESEARCH)
GRADING CRITERIA
Full transcript