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251, #6

the Policy Process Model

Julia Nicodemus

on 12 September 2018

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Transcript of 251, #6

Agenda Setting
Policy Formulation
Policy Legitimation
Policy Implementation
Policy and Program Evaluation
Policy Change
The Policy Process Model
How problems are perceived and defined, command attention, and get onto the political agenda.
Kingdon's Theory of Streams: The problem, policy, and political streams must converge at the same time for policy to get on the agenda.
How does something get on the agenda?
Salience and Potential for Conflict also might help predict what gets on the agenda... How?
The decision or drafting of policy goals and strategies for achieving them. Often involves policy analysis.
Proposing one or more courses of action (policies)
Drawing on expertise/opinion of formal and informal policymakers
Stating positions, debating, and discussing.
The mobilization of political support and formal enactment of policies. Includes justification or rationales for the policy action.
It's not just about passing the law (though that's part of it), legitimation also includes gaining public acceptance and being consistent with the constitution (so courts can play a role).
Implementation is generally done by executive agencies
The set of activities directed towards putting a policy into effect:
Measurement and assessment of policy and program effects, including success or failure.
Did the policy succeed in its goals? Is it still necessary? Is it a good policy?
Modification of policy goals and means in light of new information or shifting political environment.
Set of activities and resources directed at putting the programs into effect within bureaucracy. This is where policy meets society.
Instruments of Public Policy
What tools can the government employ as they try to address public problems?
Government Management
Taxing and Spending
Market Mechanisms
Education and Information
Policy Typologies:
Government restriction of choice to keep behavior within acceptable bounds
One gains from another's loss. The distinction is mostly about perception and conflict.
Grants and programs
In groups of 4-5, come up with 2 public problems.
What is the role of objectivity (lack of bias) in problem definition?
Next, considering gun control and your two problems, try to come up with as many different ways to "spin" the problem as possible. How would conservatives and liberals define the problem differently?
How would different groups define the causes of the problem?
Sufficient information about a problem - e.g. environmental degradation from particular pesticides

A focusing event -- a tragedy, etc, that draws attention to the problem
Practical policy solutions have been or are being developed.

Proven policy solutions are even better.

The political climate is one that is open to addressing the problem.

Can depend on who is in power, where we are in an election cycle, and on public opinion.

Government decrees that require or prevent citizens & corporations from doing something
Providing direct services or direct management of resources
Spending can be direct payments to citizens or money to states as an incentive. Taxing and tax breaks can be used to alter behavior.
Allowing market to address and issue OR using traditional market mechanisms in an official policy approach
Asking for behavior changes, providing information to encourage informed (and better) decision making.
Academic distinctions (Theodore Lowi)
& Problem Definition
Organization: establishment of resources, offices, & methods
Interpretation: translating policy language into specific actions
Application: routine provision of services or enforcement
Which steps use policy analysis?
Use the policy
process model to explain
the history and present of gun control policy.

You have THREE VOTES. You can use them on one topic or you can split them.
Should Physician Assisted Suicide be legal?
Should law enforcement be allowed to use technologies such as surveillance drones, facial recognition software, predictive analytics, etc. that may help them prevent crimes but may also infringe on people's civil liberties and privacy?
Should the government regulate and restrict the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?
Should the government ensure net neutrality?
Should we raise the federal gas tax?
Consider how problem definition affects policy solutions--what solutions does each group prefer?
What is currently on the agenda?
How do you know?
Can you relate it to the Theory of Streams?
Full transcript