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Endangered, Threatened, and Extinct Species

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T Thrash

on 22 May 2015

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Transcript of Endangered, Threatened, and Extinct Species

Endangered, Threatened, and Extinct Species
Habitat loss is the greatest cause of EN and NT species
Every individual has a need for space
When a species' space is changed or ruined it increases the chances of species to die
Invasive species are a big problem.
With an Invasive species comes competition for food and other resources between the native and non-native species.
Invasive species often don't have natural predators which makes it easy for them to reproduce.
Invasive species are released accedintally into ecosystems as well as purposfully.
Pollution forces species to adapt or die
Pollution affects all aspects of the ecosystem.
The soil, water, and air can all be containated.
As the human population increases it causes increased competition between people and animals for food and land.
Often times people degrade land
(ex. mining, agriculture, industry)
This is a problem that affects everyone on Earth. Climate change forces threatened species to adapt fast or die. Species will often inhabit different latitudes or longitudes to escape climate change which could cause local extinction.
It can also stand for:
Overharvesting
Overfishing
Over hunting
A species can be hunted to extinction. This can cause a species to become biologically extinct or ecologically extinct which is that point at which it has no ecological impact.

Habitat Loss
Invasive Species
Population Dynamics
Pollution
Climate Change
Overexploitation
Types of habitat loss:
Habitat destruction- ex. filling wetlands, dredging rivers, deforestation
Habitat fragmentation- habitat cut into fragments by roads and other developments. Dames and water diversions can fragment aquatic species. Fragmentation can cause geographic isolation and decrease populations.
Habitat degradation- pollution and invasive species can disrupt ecosystems and degrade habitat

Types of Pollution:
A point pollution source comes from a distinguishable source.
Includes:
runoff from agriculture
road salt
acid drainage
bacteria from livestock


A non-point pollution source can come from a lot of places and a single source cannot be distinguished.
Includes:
Pollution from discharge pipes
Pollution from smoke stacks


Air, Water, Land, Light, Visual, Noise, Thermal
More urban centers are created when population increases. Urbanization leads to increases the about of pollutants in one area, municipal garbage and high energy inputs, habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation.
HIPPCO
Extinct in the Wild (EW)
Known only to survive in captivity

Vulnerable (VU)
Facing high risk of extinction
Near Threatened (NT)
Close to becoming VU,EN, or CR, but has not qualified yet
Endangered (EN)
Considered to be facing high risk of extinction in the wild
Critically Endangered (CR)
Facing high risk of extinction in the wild

Extinct (EX)
Least Concern (LC)
Does not qualify for NT, abundant members of species
No reasonable doubt that the last individual of the species has died
Background Extinction- continuous, low level of extinction
Extinction Rate- percentage or number of species that go extinct within a certain period of time, for example, a year.
Current annual rate of species extinction is 1,000-10,000 times faster than the natural extinction rate or background extinction rate which is around 0.01%-0.1%
Scientists aren’t sure how many species are on the planet. There is a low estimate around 2 million different species on the planet. That means that 200-2,000 extinctions happen every year.
There is a high estimate of 100 million. That means 10,000- 100,000 species are going extinct every year.
Extinction Rate:
Mass Extinction
Extinction of many species in a relatively short period of geologic time
some people think that the 6th mass extinction is soon to come or in process
Local Extinction
Occurs when a species is no longer found in the area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world
Ecological Extinction
when so few members of a species are left that they no longer play an ecological role in biological communities
Biological Extinction
No longer found anywhere in the world. This kind of extinction is lost forever and a permanent loss of natural capital.
Extinction Hotspots
Areas of highly endangered biodiversity
Endemic Species:
These are species usually found on islands that are found no where else on Earth
They are also extremely vulnerable to extinction
Madagascar is an island with very diverse populations of species.
80-90% of species are endemic species
12,000 plants species are endemic
out of the 123 non-flying animal species on the island 72 of them are threatened
this % of is mainly due to deforestation
only 8.5% the original forests are left
lemurs are an example of an endemic species
Characteristics of Endangered Species
low reproductive rate
K-specialist
narrow distribution
specialized niche
feeds at high tropic levels
rare
commercially valuable
large territories
fixed migratory patterns
can't produce fast enough
not flexible with the foods they consume or places they live
not enough energy to sustain a larger population
very spread out
hard to reproduce
fragmentation reduces territory and habitat
tusks
rhino horns
large feline furs
rare plants and animals
biodiversity is important for natural capital
intrinsic value- this means a species usefulness in providing ecological or economic services
people spend 3x as many hours watching wildlife as than they do watching pro sports or movies
biodiversity is important for food crops, lumber, and medicines
62% of cancer drugs come from bioprospectors
plants and animals hold genetic information for research and development
There are non use values too
existance value
aethetic value
bequest value- people will pay to protect some forms of natural capital so they can be used in the future
Intrinsic Value
AKA existence value
people have the right to exist no matter their value or use to society
why shouldn't every organism?
Why Should We Care?
foxglove
used for heart failure
Europe
rosy periwinkle
hodgkin's disease
lymphocytic leukemia
Madagascar
Fewer than 1% of plant species have been studied.
Plant species that have the potential to be useful to humans come from tropical rainforests and many of them will most likely become extinct before being studied.
Solutions:
Education
teach the affects of what we are doing.
example- people in rural parts of Brazil are practicing slash and burn agriculture that can not be sustained. This causes habitat loss for animals like the jaguar and increases their threat toward humans which results in them being hunted.
Conservation & preservation
protecting areas that contain threatened animals will help increase populations
De-Extinction
Cloning
science has advanced enough to the point where this could be a possibility in the future
There are pros and cons
wild idea
controversy- "playing god"
cost a lot of money
takes away time and resources that could be give to prevent the loss of another extinction in the present
Not really a solution to the problem; short term fix to a long term problem
cool, interesting
species revival could "redeem human sins"
give species a second chance
Black Rhino
went extinct 2011
demand for horn and poaching of the black rhino led it to extinction
Thylacine
went extinct in 1936
blamed for rural economic depression
farmers believed that the Tasmanian tiger was killing livestock
they were shot and trapped until the last one died in a zoo
Pyrenean Ibex
went extinct in 2000
caused by overhunting
species was cloned in 2009 from DNA found on ibex skins
died shortly after birth
populations found in concentrated areas
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