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LANGUAGES

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Wickedz Ranola

on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of LANGUAGES

LANGUAGES
Language
the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other
a system of communication through speech
a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
latin word "lingua" which means "tongue"
Sino Tibetan Language
Language family with the most number of speakers
Might originated somewhere in the Himalayan plateau
Mandarin Chinese is the language in the family with the most number of speakers
Language family
a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history
Language branch
a collection of languages within a family related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago
Language group
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display many similarities in grammar and vocabulary
DISTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGES
(Source: Student Atlas of World Politics)
Notable Language Families (at least 10 million speakers)
Altaic
Austro-Asiatic
Austronesian
Dravidian
Niger-Congo
Afro-Asiatic
Indo-European
Sino-Tibetan
Indo-European Languages
Language family with the most number of speakers
Might originated from:
- Kurgan "war"
- Anatolian "peace"
Divided into 8 Branches
- Albanian
- Armenian
- Balto-Slavic
- Celtic
- Germanic
- Greek
- Indo-Iranian
- Romance
Isolated Language
A language unrelated to any other language family (e.g. Japanese)
Extinct Language
Language that once in use in the past, but no longer in the present
Lack of knowledge and lack of evolution of the language are the causes why a particular language extincts
The Official Languages of the United Nations
Official Language - language used by a government or an organization to conduct business and publish documents
Arabic
Chinese
French
English
Russian
Spanish
English Language as the Lingua Franca
Lingua Franca - a language of international communication
The Lingua Franca status of the English Language is a result of:
- Colonization by Britain and the United States that leads to diffusion of the language to their colonies
- Globalization (e.g. Internet, Pop Culture)
Multilingualism of a State
Multilingualism - ability of an individual speaker or a community of speakers to use multiple languages
Countries like Nigeria, Belgium, and Switzerland are examples of multilingual states
Can be a cause of a particular language to be creolized
Importance of Language in relation to: Economics
Language identifies economic principles
Language triggers man to perform economic activities
Importance of Language in relation to: Population and Migration
Language distinguishes the population into majority and/or minority groups
Language diffuses from the place of origin through migration
Importance of Language in relation to: Politics
Language identifies political ideas/theories/principles
Language is a prerequisite in order to perform political activities
Population in relation to: Culture
Language defines cultural background and history
Language unifies people to form one common identity
Language defines one's identity as a nation (e.g. National Language)
Bibliography
Book:
Allen, J.L. & Sutton, C.J. (2011). Student atlas of world
politics. United States: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Blij, H.J. (1996). Human geography, culture, society
and space. Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Guan, L.H. & Suryadinata, L. (2007). Language, nation
and development in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Rubenstein, J.M. (2012). Contemporary human
geography. New Jesey: Prentice Hall
Spolsky, B. (2004). Language policy. United Kingdom:
University Press, Cambridge.
Tan, P.K.W. & Rubdy, R. (2008). Language as
commodity. United Kingdom: MPG Books.
Map of Linguistic Diversity
(Source: Student Atlas of World Politics)
(source: bashapedia.pbworks.com)
(Source: blog.matthen.com)
(Source: robertlindsay.wordpress.com)
Bibliography
Internet:
Retrieved September 14, 2013, from http://www.
aboutworldlanguages.com/
Retrieved September 14, 2013, from http://www.
utexas.edu/
Retrieved September 16, 2013, from http://www.
grammar.about.com/
Retrieved September 16, 2013, from http://people.
bu.edu/blipman/Papers/lang.pdf
Dialect
Regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Full transcript