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Arctic Tundra Biome
Transcript of Arctic Tundra Biome
by Alyssa, Anna and Haley
Common Animals and Plants
Some animals and plants that live in the tundra biome are:
-Arctic bumble bees
Adaptions of the plants and animals
It is literally cold throughout the whole year, except the summer it gets a little milder but still considered cold. In the summer, temperatures range from 2-12 degrees Celsius. Winters range from -20 to -30 degrees Celsius. In the winter, the sun barely rises which ends up with wind blowing harder. It is unusually freezing and dry. As shocking as it may sound, the Tundra is one of the world's driest deserts.
Most of the plants in the Tundra are very small and cannot grow properly due to lack of nutrients because being close to the ground helps keep in plants from freezing. The plants are dark in colour which helps them absorb solar heat; physiological. They grow in clumps or have hair attached to protect from the cold. Other plants have flowers that follow sun, focusing more solar heat on the center of the flower which helps the plant stay warm; physiological.
The Musk Ox has an outer coat made of brown hairs and a inner coat made of wool, which is a structural adaptation that helps it survive in the brutal temperatures of the tundra. The coat and skin of a Polar Bear are constructed to absorb sunlight and keep in heat. The Polar Bears also have short ears to decrease heat loss; structural. The Arctic Fox has fur on its paws to keep warm and a thick, long, bushy tail to wrap around itself; structural. The Arctic Hare uses its claws which help it dig through the snow when looking for food such as mosses to eat; behavioral.
What do these animals eat?
Polar bears - seal, carcasses of dead whales
Caribou - varies as seasons change - plants, willow leaves, lichens
Arctic fox - small mammals - voles, lemming, birds, bird eggs
Arctic hare - buds, berries, twigs, moss, etc
Snowy owl - small rodents
Musk Ox- willow shoots, lichens, grasses and shrubs
Plants that live in the tundra include:
-a dwarf tree
- flowers such as; purple saxifrage, prairie crocus,
and an Arctic flower
-Diamond leaf willow
The environment is very wet and soggy because the precipitation slowly evaporates. Tundra's on average usually have less than 25cm a year of precipitation. About 6-10 inches of rain a year. They have as little precipitation as the world's driest deserts. The wind blows constantly. In the summers of 6-10 weeks it never gets warmer than 45-50 degrees fahrenheit. It is basically cold throughout the whole year. The tundra contains a layer of frozen soil called permaforst which melts in the summer creating bogs and shallow lakes that don't drain.
The Arctic Tundra ranges from 300 to 11,079 feet in elevation. Its highest point is a mountain, Gunnbjornsfjeld, in Watkins Range, Greenland. The Antarctic Tundra has an elevation of about 4,125 feet. South Georgia has a elevation of 8,802 feet and the Kerguelen Islands has a high elevation of 5,550 feet. The whole continent itself has little tundra and elevation because it is taken over by ice fields.
The deeper Arctic waters near the ocean floor are very salty and quite dense therefore they do not flow readily. The surface waters of the Arctic Ocean circulate in a large clockwise pattern which results in clockwise winds in this region. Leaving the tundra almost alwa