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The Art of Questioning
Transcript of The Art of Questioning
-What do we already know about this?
-Can you give me an example?
-Are you saying ... or ... ?
-Can you rephrase that, please?
-What else could we assume?
-You seem to be assuming ... ?
-How did you choose those assumptions?
-Please explain why/how ... ?
-How can you verify or disprove that assumption?
-What would happen if ... ?
-Do you agree or disagree with ... ? 3. Probing rationale, reasons and evidence
-Why is that happening?
-How do you know this?
-Show me ... ?
-Can you give me an example of that?
-What do you think causes ... ?
-What is the nature of this?
-Are these reasons good enough? -Would it stand up in court?
-How might it be refuted?
-How can I be sure of what you are saying?
-Why is ... happening? 4. Questioning viewpoints and perspectives -Another way of looking at this is ..., does this seem reasonable?
-What alternative ways of looking at this are there?
-Why it is ... necessary?
-Who benefits from this?
-What is the difference between... and...? 5. Probe implications and consequences -Then what would happen? What are the consequences of that assumption?
-How could ... be used to ... ?
-What are the implications of ... ?
-How does ... affect ... ? How does ... fit with what we learned before?
-Why is ... important?
-What is the best ... ? Why? 6. Questions about the question -What was the point of asking that question?
-Why do you think I asked this question?
-What does that mean? The Art of
Questioning Questioning is an integral part of an inquiry centered classroom. It is a learner’s thinking tool to carry out investigation about a subject matter. The power to question is vested with the teacher who uses this tool to either approve or disapprove of children’s knowledge thus empowering or disempowering them. GENERAL GUIDELINES 1. Distribute questions so that all, including non-volunteers, are involved. 2. Balance factual and thought-provoking questions. 3. Ask both simple and exacting questions 4. Encourage lengthy responses and sustained answers. 5. Stimulate critical thinking 6. Use the overhead technique: 1) question, 2) pause, 3) name. 7. Insure audibility, then refuse to repeat questions or answers 8. If a student asks a question, don't answer it until you've asked the class 9. Personalize questions 10. Suggest partnership by inquiring Levels of Thinking Skills Low level thinking High level thinking 3. APPLICATION 2. UNDERSTANDING/
COMPREHENSION 1. KNOWLEDGE 6. EVALUATION 5. SYNTHESIS 4. ANALYSIS FIVE BASIC TYPES OF QUESTIONS Factual
Combination 1. Factual Soliciting reasonably simple, straight forward answers based on obvious facts or awareness.
The lowest level of cognitive or affective processes and answers are frequently either right or wrong. 2. Convergent Answers to these types of questions are usually within a very finite range of acceptable accuracy
These may be at several different levels of cognition 3. Divergent These questions allow students to explore different avenues and create many different variations and alternative answers or scenarios These questions allow students to explore different avenues and create many different variations and alternative answers or scenarios 4. Evaluative These types of questions usually require sophisticated levels of cognitive and/or emotional judgment. 5. Combinations These are questions that blend any combination mentioned Categories of Questions Open questions
Leading questions Open questions These are useful in getting another person to speak. They often begin with the words: What, Why, When, Who
Sometimes they are statements:"tell me about", "give me examples of".
They can provide you with a good deal of information. Closed questions These are questions that require a yes or no answer and are useful for checking facts.
They should be used with care - too many closed questions can cause frustration and shut down conversation. Specific questions These are used to determine facts. For example “How much did you spend on that” Probing questions These check for more detail or clarification. Probing questions allow you to explore specific areas.
However be careful because they can easily make people feel they are being interrogated Hypothetical questions These pose a theoretical situation in the future. For example, “What would you do if…?’
These can be used to get others to think of new situations.
They can also be used in interviews to find out how people might cope with new situations. Reflective questions You can use these to reflect back what you think a speaker has said, to check understanding.
You can also reflect the speaker’s feelings, which is useful in dealing with angry or difficult people and for defusing emotional situations. Leading questions. The End :) References: http://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/learning/quest2.htm
Stevens, R. "The Question as a Measure of Efficiency in Instruction: A Critical Study of Classroom Practice," Teachers College Contributions to Education, 48, 1912.
Mills, S.R., C.T. Rice, D.C. Berliner, and E.W. Rousseau. "The Correspondence between Teacher Questions and Student Answers in Classroom Discourse," Journal of Experimental Education, 48, 1980, 194-204.
Gall, M. "The Use of Questions in Teaching," Review of Educational Research, 40, 1970, 707-20.
Lindley, D. (1993) This rough magic. Westport, CN. Bergin & Garvey. a Reporters: Adrian Carlo Calabano
Mae Anne Santos
Katrina Pallorina 3SPED1 These are used to gain acceptance of your view – they are not useful in providing honest views and opinions.
If you say to someone ‘you will be able to cope, won’t you?’ they may not like to disagree.