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Transcript of Glob6: Internet
We are doing new things, and we are doing old things in a new way
As of 2006, 83% of online Americans say they have used the internet to seek information about their hobbies and 29% do so on a typical day.
Blogging is “old”. In 2006, 28% of those aged 12-29 were bloggers, but by 2009 the numbers had dropped to 15%. The number of older users climbed a little from 7% to 11%.
Nearly three quarters (73%) of online teens and an equal number (72%) of young adults use social network sites. By contrast, older adults have not kept pace; some 40% of adults 30 and older use the social sites in the fall of 2009. Overall, 2/3 of Americans use social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace or LinkedIn. Roughly 2/3 say that staying in touch with current friends and family members is a major reason they use these sites, while half say that connecting with old friends they’ve lost touch with is a major reason behind their use of these technologies. No other factor is cited by more than 20%.
Within about two decades, Internet has become one of the fixtures of the modern life
The PC is dying
Worldwide users of devices such as smartphones and tablets are increasingly common
New technologies are being adopted very rapidly
That's all, folks!
in sociological perspective
The INFORMATION AGE, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Digital Age, is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the industrial revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on the information computerization. The onset of the Information Age is associated with Digital Revolution, just as the Industrial Revolution marked the onset of the Industrial Age.
The DIGITAL REVOLUTION, also sometimes called the third industrial revolution, is the change from analog mechanical and electronic technology to digital technology that has taken place since about 1980 and continues to the present day
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population
Number of Internet users in 2010
The number of Internet users worldwide is steadily growing, but there are major disparities in who uses it
The GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE is the global disparity between developed and developing countries in regards to access to computing and information resources and to the Internet and the opportunities derived from this
Internet users in 2002 (territory size shows the proportion of worldwide Internet users who lived there in 2002. )
A DIGITAL DIVIDE is an economic inequality between groups, broadly construed, in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of information and communication technologies.
Groups affected by the digital divide:
- the old
- the poor
Who is affected by the digital divide? Can we think of some groups?
Is there a new generational gap between Internet-savvy youth and less savvy older generation?
Not all can use the Internet. Will those who cannot be a new second class citizens?
As of September 2012, 85% of Americans owned a cell phone (45%, a smartphone). Cell phone ownership rates among young adults illustrate the extent to which mobile phones have become a necessity of modern communications: fully 96% of 18-29 year olds own a cell phone of some kind.
As of 2010 three quarters (76%) of Americans owned either a desktop or laptop computer. Laptop ownership has grown dramatically (from 30% in 2006 to 61% in 2012) while desktop ownership has declined slightly (to 58% as of 2012).
As of 2010 just under half of American adults (47%) owned an mp3 player such as an iPod, a nearly five-fold increase from the 11% who owned this type of device in early 2005.
Console gaming devices like the Xbox and PlayStation are nearly as common, as 42% of Americans had one in 2010
18% owned an e-book reader.
Increasing numbers of Internet users is creating new content online, from Wikipedia articles, through blogs, to graphics, comics and videos. Many others share that content.
Languages on the Internet
Internet users by language
Website content languages
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:InternetUsersByLanguagePieChart.svg
Even through native English speakers form less than half of the Internet users, most websites are in English
Wikipedia articles available by language (January 2012):
1: English: 4,300,000 articles
8: Polish 950,000 articles
21: Korean: 215,00 articles
23: Arabic 200,000 articles
Benefits of speaking English are clear. But can we think of any drawbacks?
Would the world be a better or worse place if we all spoke a single language?
Socio-economic impact of the computers and the Internet has been immense
New industries have been created (computer, software). Some of the worlds most valued companies deal with new media hardware (IBM, Intel, Samsung, Sony...) or software (Google, Microsoft, Facebook). Video game industry has about the same worth as the centuries-old fashion industry, and is worth more than the film and television industry.
An Internet culture has evolved
Existing culture has been changed, for example new sports have been created (professional gaming such as Starcraft)
Internet has significantly contributed to globalization, both in economy and in culture
Can we think of some examples?
Productivity in many industries have increased.
Some industries have been negatively affected by the internet, which is a DISRUPTIVE TECHONOLOGY for them.
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY - a disruptive technology (also known as a disruptive innovation) is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology. Some historical examples: combustion engine to steam engine, metal ships to wooden ships, automobiles to horse-drawn vehicles, pendrives to cds, cds to floppy drives.
Can we think of some products or industries that have been disrupted by the Internet?
music industry; dictionaries and encyclopedias; telephone industry; newspapers; postal services...
Can we think of some examples of how Internet has changed our culture?
blog, BBS, chat, e-commerce, Internet games, Internet memes, peer-to-peer sharing, virtual worlds, cybersex, social networks....
The spread of the Internet has led to concerns about
privacy and data theft
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_Censorship_World_Map.svg
CROWDSOURCING - is a process that involves outsourcing tasks to a distributed group of people.
CROWDFUNDING - describes the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations
New technologies are being adopted very rapidly
Sales of smartphones and tablets outstripped sales of desktop and laptop PCs in 2010.
Popularity of smartphones is growing
As of summer 2012, 25% of Americans owned a tablet.
Adoption of tablets is even quicker than that of smartphones.
Read more: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Tablet-Ownership-August-2012/Findings.aspx
Smartphone penetration in South Korea is even higher; an August 2012 report noted that 60% of South Koreans had a smartphone.
Internet is now mobile. In 2011, mobile internet penetration in Korea was 41.4 percent and is expected to grow to 72.7 percent by 2015.
Korea is among the most Internet-connected countries in the world.
As of 2013, 84% of South Koreans had Internet access, putting South Korea in the 21st position worldwide.
World ranking is led by Scandinavia.
Japan has a penetration of 79.5%, US of 77.8%, Poland of 64.9%, China of 38.3% and India of 10%.
How can we explain such a high ranking for Korea? (largest penetration in Asia)
companies are tracking your browsing history and Internet habits to create your consumer profile to sell you targeted goods
criminals are trying to steal your identity and passwords (through spam, malware, viruses...)
people can research (google) you
governments and your employer want to track your web history and habits
As of 2010 in US, online reputation-monitoring via search engines has increased – 57% of adult internet users now use search engines to find information about themselves online, up from 47% in 2006
46% of internet users search online to find information about people from their past, up from 36% in 2006. Likewise, 38%% have sought information about their friends, up from 26% in 2006
As of 2012 in US, more than half of mobile app users have uninstalled or avoided cell phone apps because of privacy concerns
Nearly one third of cell owners have experienced a lost or stolen phone, and 12% have had another person access the contents of their phone in a way that made them feel their privacy was invaded
In 2006, Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontières, RSF), a Paris-based international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, started publishing a list of "Enemies of the Internet". The organization classifies a country as an enemy of the internet because "all of these countries mark themselves out not just for their capacity to censor news and information online but also for their almost systematic repression of Internet users."
In 2007 a second list of countries "Under Surveillance" was added
Read the 2012 report here: http://march12.rsf.org/i/Report_EnemiesoftheInternet_2012.pdf
A 2010 global poll by BBC found that "Despite worries about privacy and fraud, people around the world see access to the internet as their fundamental right. They think the web is a force for good, and most don’t want governments to regulate it."
Four in five adults (79%) regard internet access as their fundamental right.
Read the poll analysis at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/08_03_10_BBC_internet_poll.pdf
Countries where very high proportions regarded internet access as their fundamental right
included South Korea (96%).
South Korea was among the countries where most web users did not feel they could express their opinions safely online (70%).
More than half (53%) of internet users agreed that “the internet should never be regulated by any level of government anywhere”—including large majority in South Korea (83%)."
According to a 2010 BBC poll, South Koreans are the most likely to be concerned about loss of privacy—41 per cent of
the respondents cite this as their main internet-related worry.
How important is privacy for you - and what are we doing to protect it?
Why do we value the Internet?
Are we addicted to the Internet?
South Korean are among the most opposed to government regulation of the Internet, yet the South Korean government is among the ones employing the most censorship.
How can we explain this contradiction?
Will something change?
According to the Telecommunication Business Law, three government agencies in South Korea have responsibility for internet surveillance and censorship: the Broadcasting Regulation Committee, the Korea Media Rating Board, and the Korea Internet Safety Commission.
Freedom to criticize government leaders, policies, and the military is limited to the extent that it "endangers national security" or is considered by censors to be "cyber defamation".
Access is blocked to sites seen as sympathetic to North Korea.
KISCOM censors websites under its category of "obscenity and perversion"; since 2008 attempts by anybody to access "incident internet sites" unrated games, pornography, gambling, etc., are automatically redirected to the warning page showing "This site is legally blocked by the government regulations
The 2009 modification of the copyright law of South Korea introducing the three strikes policy has generated a number of criticism, including those with regards to the Internet freedoms and censorship. Tens of thousands of Korean Internet users have been disconnected from the Internet after not three, but one strikes.
At the same time, there is a growing recognition that access to the Internet is a right.
When should it be legal to deny someone access to the Internet, if ever?
The critics argue that the current copyright law gives too much power to the copyright holders, which can hurt Korean competitiveness and culture, and de facto limits the freedom of expression.
Watch PBS documentary: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/virtual-worlds/internet-addiction/game-addiction-counseling.html
There is still no consensus on the details of Internet addiction, but many estimates give several millions of individuals addicted to the Internet, including over 2 millions in South Korea.
Is Internet addiction real?
COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT is the unauthorized use of works under copyright, infringing the copyright holder's "exclusive rights", such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the copyrighted work, spread the information contained within copyrighted works, or to make derivative works.
There is a growing cultural clash between supporters and opponents of the current copyright regimes
Trade groups affiliated with organizations claiming to represent copyright holders argue that downloading and sharing copyrighted content is "theft".
Internet-based pressure groups such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Students for Free Culture criticize the current state of copyright laws, arguing that they benefit only a small percentage of the population, and as currently written, stifle creativity and damage our culture, infringing upon our human right to share in benefits of culture.
Copyright has been significantly extended in the past century
A lot of businesses have built upon the public domain - works whose copyright has expired - but today they are defending their right to eternal copyright.
For example, Disney has reused public domain tales by Brothers Grimm or others, but is refusing to let others reuse its creations (Mickey Mouse, etc.).
The Academic Spring is a movement by academics, researchers and scholars which started in 2012, opposing the restrictive copyright and circulation of traditional academic journals and promoting free access online instead.
Should science be free for everyone?
Many forms of cultural expression common today are technically illegal:
sharing pictures not made by oneself
selling a picture of artistic work taken in a public place
remixing music videos (anime music videos in particulate)
fanfiction (including doujinshi)
A new social movement has arose in late 1990s, the FREE CULTURE MOVEMENT. The free culture movement is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative works in the form of free content by using the Internet and other forms of media.
Some products created through the free culture movement using less restrictive copyright licenses such as Creative Commons or GPL include Linux and Wikipedia.
Public Domain Day is an observance of when copyrights expire and works enter into the public domain. This legal transition of copyright works into the public domain usually happens every year on 1 January based on the individual copyright laws of each country.
Public domain is limited in some countries, such as in the USA, where extension of copyright keeps stopping works from entering the public domain.
Copyright can be used as a form of censorship. EFF maintains the "take down hall of shame": https://www.eff.org/takedowns
In 2012, several large protests were held against legislation aiming to enforce copyright. The largest of them was the January 18 anti-SOPA protest. Read about it at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protests_against_SOPA_and_PIPA
Wikipedia was one of the major participants in the 2012 Internet strike protests against SOPA
Free culture activists don't oppose copyright - they oppose it's continued extension and abuse, such as COPYFRAUD (such as illegal claims of copyright ownership of the public domain).
Watch TED talk "Rob Reid: The $8 billion iPod"
Lawrence Lessig, the founder of free culture movement, said:
Creativity and innovation always builds on the past.
The past always tries to control the creativity that builds on it.
Free societies enable the future by limiting the past.
The past always tries to control the creativity that builds on it.
Established companies have an interest in excluding future competitors.
INFORMATION OVERLOAD refers to the difficulty a person can have understanding an issue and making decisions that can be caused by the presence of too much information
We live in the INFORMATION AGE
We need to learn how to filter the information
Are we swamped by information? How can we avoid that?
DIGITAL LITERACY is the ability to effectively and critically navigate, evaluate and create information using a range of digital technologies
sample tools of the digitally literate
Content is created in new ways
In few years, Kickstarter has funded several thousand films and many other projects.
Read more at http://www.techdirt.com/blog/casestudies/articles/20130104/03282921581/100-million-pledged-to-indie-film-kickstarter-8000-films-made.shtml
Most free culture projects like Wikipedia or Linux are crowdsourced.
46% of adult internet users post original photos or videos online that they themselves have created.
41% of adult internet users take photos or videos that they have found online and repost them on sites designed for sharing images with many people.
Those people often violate copyrights by doing so...
Overall, 56% of internet users do at least one of these activities and 32% of internet users do both.
What is being created? A better question would be - what isn't?
People write and share: encyclopedias, articles, fiction...
People take and share photos
People take and share videos
People make and share music
And they REMIX it all
REMIX CULTURE is a society that allows and encourages derivative works by combining or editing existing materials to produce a new product
Lessig talks about the changing culture: from Read-Only Culture vs. Read/Write Culture
3D printers promise the potential of changing our physical culture
design, share designs, modify them, and print them into real world
designs for 3D printers can be shared online
There is a growing subculture of people interested in applications of 3d printing: the MAKER SUBCULTURE
A model (left) was digitally acquired by using a 3D scanner, the scanned data processed using MeshLab, and the resulting 3D model used by a rapid prototyping machine to create a resin replica (right)
Wikimedia Commons several millions of freely licensed images. Other sites like Flicker have even more
Jamendo has over 300,000 freely licensed music tracks
YouTube has millions of fan-made videos
This longer documentary: RIP: A remix manifesto is also worth watching:
Should the often-illegal remix culture be penalized - or praised?
This Prezi made by Piotr Konieczny
Licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0
Source: Source: NPD DisplaySearch Quarterly Mobile PC Shipment and Forecast Report
Tablets are outselling laptops since 2013
Another group related to the Free Culture movement is the Free and Open Source Software Movement
In the context of free and open-source software, free refers to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software. The Free Software Foundation, an organization that advocates the free software model, suggests that, to understand the concept, one should "think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer"
This is also known as the "Gratis versus libre" difference
Some critics of the Internet argue that Internet makes us detached from real life, lost in fictional, virtual words
Supporters of the Internet argue that it doesn't take away anything, but rather, it enhances our lives, making them more full
What do you think? Is Internet making our lives better? It has dark sides, certainly. Can we make it better?
Korea has several organizations promoting free culture, such as KAFIL (Korea Association for Info-Media Law) and Creative Commons Korea
In this video, Dan Tapscott discusses how Internet is changing our culture and economy
Some related documentaries:
Good Copy Bad Copy
Larry Lessig: Laws that choke creativity
fair use in Korea is still not well defined in law
as is Everything is a Remix
Nothing is original, says Kirby Ferguson, creator of Everything is a Remix. From Bob Dylan to Steve Jobs, he says our most celebrated creators borrow, steal and transform.
Do you think that law should be changed?
Do you think that access to Internet should be a human right?
Do you think that censorship is a violation of that right?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_by_country contains a good overview
Open Net Initative listed censorship in South Korea as pervasive in the conflict/security area, as selective in social, and as no evidence in political and Internet tools.
At least one area under:
videos - see yellow pad and laptop sections
Korean Lawmakers and Human Rights Experts Challenge Three Strikes Law
Copyright: Forever Less One Day 5:30
Copying Is Not Theft 1:00
Artists and executives are increasingly likely to see piracy as beneficial, as it advertises the shows, and increases the audience, many of whom will buy some product:
CC success stories in Korea:
Copyright is often imposed on countries through secret international negotiations. Here's a recent case study:
Read more: https://www.eff.org/issues/tpp
And this is just the beginning:
How to reduce the digital divide?
Why is global divide a major global problem?
Economic equality: access to the Internet is a basic component of civil life that some developed countries aim to guarantee for their citizens (see below). Vital information relevant to people's careers, lifestyles, safety, etc. are increasingly provided via the Internet. Even social welfare services are sometimes administered and offered electronically.
Social mobility: computers and computer networks are playing an increasingly important role in people’s learning, professional work and career development. Education should therefore cover computing and use of the Internet.
Democracy: the use of the Internet can lead to a healthier democracy, increased public participation in elections and decision making processes.
Economic growth: the development and active use of information infrastructure offers a shortcut to economic growth for less developed nations. Information technologies tend to be associated with productivity improvements and may give industries a competitive advantage.