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Nancy Lu

on 12 April 2012

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Transcript of Geopolitics

The Nation State
Geopolitical Conflicts
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
sizable group of people who have adopted a unique common identity as fellow citizens who live together under one government within a certain geographical area
Concept originated in Europe during the Renaissance (late 1400s to early 1600s)
Because of French and American revolutions, changed people’s views on how they wished to be governed
Prior to Renaissance, political power usually belonged to one single ruler or dynasty; dictator like
Democratic States
Nation State Formation
Most nation states established between 1900 and 1999
Resulted from decolonization of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Middle East after World War 2
After Soviet Union broke up, new nation states established
Amy Nguyen, Nancy Lu, Tiffany Wong
The Role Played by
National Sovereignty

Nation States
set apart from one another by its history, language, customs, religion, ethnic composition, unique sense of community
have political autonomy
able to create policies and enforce laws within its borders without interference from other states
legal concept that recognizes that the authority of a state is not subject to legal control by any other state
differentiated through borders
Mark the limit of a nation’s law and security
Brand a specific geographical area with a national identity
When armed forces of one country cross the border of another without being invited, threaten country’s national sovereignty  results in armed clash
Difficult to breach
Sovereign entity: a country decides who is allowed in, who is kept out, who is entitled to work there and how long a visitor can remain within its borders

Globalization weakening the concept of national sovereignty
High-tech communications systems allowed people from many countries to communicate as though they lived in the same neighborhood or in a global village
National governments have a limited ability to control the Internet and other communications technologies
Agreements created trading blocs in which national borders do not limit the movement of goods
NAFTA- the North American Free Trade Agreement
ASEAN-Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
Cultural globalization
a line separating two political or geographical areas, esp. countries.
based on easily recognizable natural features
shorelines, rivers, lakes, deserts, swamps, mountain ranges
arbitrary- determined on basis of someone else's POV or purpose
determined as a result of negotiations between the countries concerned
A set of ideas and beliefs that form the basis of a nation’s political and economic systems and its social goals.
- Relies on nationlism
- Citizens get less equality, freedoms and opportunities.
Absolute Monarchy
One-Party Nation State
Religious Nation

Cold War occured after WW2 in the 1940s and end of 1980s
change in politics internationally
different political ideaologies led to the cold war
Two countries involved in the war :
1) USA
2) Soviet Union ( USSR)
known as superpowers
other names for other countries:
power bloc, neutrals or non aligned nations
- 1940s to the end of 1980s
scare of hostility without actual large scale of warfare
occured between the power blocs of US and the USSR
-difference in political idealogies : democratic vs communist
- Both countries had multiple accusations against each other
- foreign policy of democratic states after WW2
- purpose of policy was to stop the expansionism of the Soviet Union in Western Europe
- wanted to contain it within its boundaries
- 2 ways were used to stop the Soviet Union:
1) The Marshal Plan
2) Nato military alliance
-US Sphere = Americas
- Soviet Spehere: Eastern europe
-understanding that both countries would not interfere with their sphere of influence
- 1962: Soviet Union placed nucear missiles in Cuba
- tension was reduced to prevent a nuclear war
-superpowers competed in different ways:

1970-1980: CIVIL WAR
- both wanted to enlarge their sphere of influence
1960s: " Space Race"
- space was demonstration of superiority of political idealogy over another
-Ex. Soviet Union, US, China
- tension after in both nations
- realized that nuclear would result in disaster
- 1990: break up of Soviet Union + cold war ended
- Soviet adapted to different forms of government
- change from command to market economy
Ex. Soviet Union & China
- realized thatprivate enterprise would boost economy
- believed globalization is the key to economic success
-many private ownership + large state owned enterprises. ex. oil companies
-encouraged investment internationally in manufacturing offices and plants
-2006: 450 firms of Fortune 500 + 500 US public corporations invested in China
- not the end of geopolitical conflicts
-1990: The Gulf War
-2001: Taliban War
-2002: Canada joined the war as part of NATO mission
2003: 2nd Gulf War
- break out of civil war from 1990s
- dispute of India and Pakistan
- more issues include: trade policies, environmental degradation, migration, human rights, abnoriginal self determination etc.
- more issues will continue to over flow globally
-In 1975, there were 42 fully functional democracies,49 limited democracies and 68 authoritarian states.

Democracy: The form of government in which citizens choose their leaders in open and fair elections.
- Guarantees freedoms of expression, assembly, religion, and the press.
As of 2007, there are 45 authoritarian nation states.
- Absolute Monarchy
- One-Party Nation State
- Military Authoritarianism
- Relgious Nation State
Sheikh Khalifa II bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
- No elected officials
- No parties to challenge them
- No constitutional form of government
- No popular assembly
- No independent judiciary
Vatican City
Saudi Arabia
the UAE
-In 2007, there were 90 fully functional democracies, 58 limited democracies and 45 authoritarian states.
Geopoltics, Nation state, Sovereignty
Borders, Global Village, Political Autonomy, Sovereign entity, Globalization , Cultural Globalization, Cold war, Civil War, Superpowers, Marshal Plan, Democracy, NATO military alliance, Imperialism, Containment , Ideology,
Sphere of influence, Nationalism, Authoritarianism , Absolute Monarchy,
Religious Nation State , Communism
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