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Racism towards Muslims and Arabs post 9/11

social problems project 2

jimshir harris

on 5 June 2010

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Transcript of Racism towards Muslims and Arabs post 9/11

Racism towards Muslims and Arabs post 9/11 Introduction -Racism: "The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others." The change in racism post-911 The focus: Arab-Americans *NOTE* These are generalizations made by scholars and DO NOT reflect the entire Arab-American or American community
The Media & The Web Identity / AAI (The Arab American Institution) Holds Hill Briefing on New TSA (Transportation Security Agency) Screening Regulations: The new TSA regulations require passengers traveling on passports from 14 countries considered either "state sponsors of terror" or "countries of interest" to be automatically subjected to enhanced screening procedures.

Michael German (American Civil Liberties Union): Described the new TSA screening policy as not only unconstitutional, but inefficient and counterproductive, in a sense it is a “proxy for racial profiling.”

Jumana Musa (Rights Working Group): “The government broadly targeted a whole community after 9/11.” Only one of 1,200 people detained as a result of the original TSA screening policy profiling, directly after 9/11, has been prosecuted-and that prosecution was later overturned due to prosecutorial misconduct.

Amardeep Singh (Sikh Coalition): A system of racial profiling has been in effect long before these new measures were enacted: quoted; “what was once the de facto system is now a de jure system,” and now the same flaws in the new system: "if you list 14 countries, terrorists will go to country number 15."

All panelists and members agree that the old TSA screening procedures were flawed and the new screening procedure system is even more broken then the original, with thousands of names, a huge error rate, an a even bigger population of terrorists not even on the list, and those who have been cleared not getting removed from the list.
By: JimShir Harris
Laura Schaefer
Colton Domes
Stella Idrizi The Association of Perceived Abuse and Discrimination after September 11, 2001, with Psychological Distress, Level of Happiness, and Health Status among Arab Americans In the United States, prejudice, discrimination, and violence against Muslims and Arabs have increased since September 11, 2001; The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) stated that there was a 1600% increase in hate crimes against Arab American populations, both Muslim and non-Muslim throughout year following the terrorist attack.

Population- based surveys were given to those of Middle Eastern Decent and Arabic speaking adults in the United States with the results being; approximately 30% of Arabs (non-Muslim) and 50% of Muslims reporting discrimination in the 8 months following September 11.

Mosques and Muslim-owned business were vandalized almost immediately after the images of the terrorists were revealed as Arabic men and individuals whom looked or even faintly resembled a Muslim individual were verbally abused, physically assaulted, and, in some cases, murdered.

Even though Anti-Muslim and anti-Arab hate crimes were already substantially high before September 11, they increased a considerable amount directly after 9/11 and continue to be at higher levels ever since.

Discrimination and unfair treatment of Arabic and Muslim Americans has not only happened on the civilian and individual level, but at the highest governmental and political levels as well. In the year following the September 11th terrorist attacks U.S. government policies have dominantly targeted and Muslim and Arab community and their organizations.
Was the government really trying to protect its citizens or were they just creating excuses for people and their selves to discriminate against other races??? History Repeating Itself Similar to 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor

Japanese killed over two thousand and five hundred Americans

Led the United States government to create executive order 9066 in which internment camps were constructed to imprison over 120,000 Japanese Americans

Government claimed “military necessity” despite the fact that there were no records of any misconduct

Could be seen as Americans feeling the need to take revenge
Patriot act
-created as a way to fight off terrorist attacks and punish any tyrants against united states
-supposed to console Americans
-belief that this act would scare those who could potentially pose as a threat to America
-people to be deported with an insufficient amount of evidence that they are in any way related to terroristic activities
-forces foreign born immigrants from certain countries to register, most of these countries being Muslim
-over 8,000 Arabs and South Asians have been interrogated based solely on religion and/or race
-allows for racial profiling

-strips many of their personal privacy with government tapping phones and even checking medical records
-government felt as though they were fighting against bioterrorism
-really just intruding on peoples privacy
-restricts the civil rights of Muslims and Arabs

-government refuses to release information about the people they have questioned since the day of the attacks
-makes people wonder what they are hiding since they say they are only protecting us
-polls show Americans view Muslims as terrorists automatically
The end…well almost…
survey by Colton!!! Assimilation Data was gathered in a 2003 survey sampling Arab Americans in the Detroit area and it was concluded that after Sep.11 many of them felt discriminated against due to their ethnicity and religion

Muslim civic and religious organizations have been raided by the FBI, since 18 Muslim charity organizations have had their assets frozen and racial profiling has occurred in airports as well as streets

Even though strongly influenced by their ethnical roots and culture, studies made by the Us. Census data show that 80% of Us born Arabs had non Arab spouses implying a diminishing ethnic identification.

Logistic regressions show that for both genders those with Arab ancestry that are Us born , those with strong English language ability and highly educated are significantly more likely to out marry as were Arabs of Lebanese ancestry

The cultural and structural assimilation of Arab Americans is facilitating intermarriage with indicators of acculturation being the strongest predictors especially among women

Children that are born to intermarried couples have a hard time knowing their identity and overcoming certain stereotypes that society holds towards Arab Americans.

There was a 16% increase in hate crimes against the Arab population

This affects the safety of the whole community since committing a hate crime against a specific targeted group can cause a lot of hate and vindictive feelings

Labeling Theory
The Arab American community has adopted the labeling theory due to the fact that after the events of Sep.11, they were labeled as deviants, terrorists and criminals . Many Arab Americans are aware of this theory and the way that society perceives them and adopt to that theory , in other words , they expect negative feedback so they have a negative attitude towards non Muslims.

Patriarchy Arab Americans are seeking psychological counseling from mosques and churches since the events of Sep.11 took
place. According to studies that have been conducted, Arab American women are predisposed to a lower risk of discrimination in our society. Arab women have risen to prominence internationally and have made significant progress towards improving their status in society. According to the book “The Hidden Face Of Eve” by Nawal El Saadwai , Arab women have fought their way up for their image to be changed. Patriarchy is an issue in the Muslim world and it is going to take many generations for that image to be changed since it is a concept that has lived in the Arab world for centuries.
Politics Tensions have grown in the Middle East since the Us government has closely allied with Israel.

While violence towards Arabs has increasingly become a central component of the US domestic and foreign policies , very little has been written on Anti-Arab racism itself

The effects of Sep.11th on Arabs has been studied and results have shown that the dynamics of the Arab community are based on rejection and discrimination and this continues to be an issue even in 2010

In February of 2002 President George W. Bush determined the position of the United States in the war against Al Qaeda . As announced by the White House press secretary on Feb.7,2002 , he decided that
1) The 1949 Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war , to which both Afghanistan and the United States are parties , applies to the armed conflict in Afghanistan between the Taliban and United States.
-Web animations (modern "political cartoons") surfaced the day after 9/11

-Audience: limitless

-Easy and simple to use/make/distribute

-Made as a response in fear and rage

-2 main focuses: (a) the revenge narrative = violence and humiliation against Arab characters (b) the deviance narrative = Arab culture as deviant from Western culture

-No mass protest/criticism against it because:
(1) the Web is home to a wide array or messages in various forms
(2) compared to past wartime animations these were created by individuals vs. the government
(3) they must be sought out, you look for them and you are not forced to see them
(4) the focus is known militant leaders/terrorists not the general population
(5) fear: criticizing it make be seen as anti-patriotic -9/11 now draws attention to Arab Americans, whether wanted or not

-changes over the years:
(pre-1967) - "overwhelmingly Christian...assimilated while maintaining Old World ties"
(post-1967) - reclaimed a sense of nationalism
(1990's) - rebirth in the pride in being Arab (very intellectual)
(9/11) - thrust into spotlight
(post-9/11) - the need to hide ethnicity causing a disconnect with their culture

-Politics: The Patriot Act targeted Arab Americans, domestic environment terrifies Arab Americans and keeps them out of politics (losing voice and no real leadership to rely on), the "us" vs. "them" by politicians

-Xenophobia: fear or hatred of anything that is strange or foreign-> racism -> feeling unwelcome (in their own home!)"To dissent against the imagined mores of America is to forfeit identification as American. Leaving the United States then becomes the only logical option..."

-Changed the context of the meaning of "jihad"

-pre-9/11 Arab-American racism existed (xenophobia) but "it polarized attitudes that had been in place years before the word terrorism became common parlance." Sources Abdelkarim, Riad Z.. "Islam in America; Surge in Hate Crimes Followed by Official U.S. Targeting of Muslim, Arab Men. " The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs 22.3 (2003): 51. Multicultural Module, ProQuest. Web.

Akiyama, Cliff . "When You Look Like the Enemy. " Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 8.2 (2008): 209-213. Psychology Module, ProQuest. Web.

Akram, Susan M. "The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. " Arab Studies Quarterly 24.2/3 (2002): 61. Research Library Core, ProQuest. Web.

Hanley, D.C. (2010). Aai (the arab american institution) holds hill briefing on new tsa (transportation security agency) screening regulations. American Educational Trust, 29(2), 44.

Padela, A.I., & Heisler, M. (2010). The Association of perceived abuse and discrimination after september 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among arab americans. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 284-291.

Salaita, Steven (2005). Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab Americans Before and After 9/11. College Literature, 32(2), 146-168.

Van Buren, Cassandra (2006). Critical Analysis of Racist Post-9/11 Web Animations: Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 50(3), 537 – 554.

http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1963688601&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1270604192&clientId=31813. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2010

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