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Bipolar Disorder

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by

Sarah Walter

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder
This is a disorder that has extreme mood shifts, ranging from depression to mania. These are unpredictable and sometimes not diagnosed.
What is it?
This disorder appears, on average, in the late teens to early thirties. The first bipolar episode often occurs in adolescence or early childhood and may be triggered by a traumatic even. Between these episodes, people are often symptom- free, but not everyone is as lucky.
There are two different episodes that those with BD will experience: manic and depression. Depression is a low, and mania is being really high, emotionally and not chemically, and leads to rash decisions.
Bipolar types:
Bipolar I:
A person with this will experience at least one manic episode in their lifetime.
Bipolar II:
This is similar to Bipolar I, with moods cycling between high and low over time. The "up" moods never reach full- on mania.
Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
Symptoms exist but do not meet diagnostic criteria of either Bipolar I or II. But the symptoms are clearly out of the persons normal range of behavior.
Rapid Cycling
The person experiences four or more episodes of mania or depression in one year. About 10- 20% of people with BD have this.
Mixed Bipolar
They experience both mania and depression at the same time or in rapid sequence.
Cyclothymia
This is a mild mood disorder where the symptoms are more mild than full- blown Bipolar.
Symptoms of Depression
Sadness
Anxiety
Irritability
Loss of energy
Uncontrollable crying
Change in appetite
Increased need for sleep
Difficulty making decisions
Thought of death and suicide
Symptoms of Mania
Excessive happiness
Excitement
Irritability
Restlessness
Increased energy
Less need for sleep
Racing thoughts
High sex drive
The tendency to make
unattainable and grand plans
Complications
Self- mutilation and self- harm are, on average, an attempt to cope with overpowering negative emotions, such as extreme anger, anxiety, and frustration. This is repetitive; not a one- time act.

Whats going on in the brain?
The prefrontal cortex in adults with BD tends to be smaller and function less than those who don't have BD.
Decrease in the number of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex.
Decrease in the number of neurons in part of the hippocampus.
Increase in the levels of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus.
Small abnormal areas in the white matter of the brain, especially in the frontal lobe. These are caused by the loss of myelin or axons. The lack of neurons leads to a lack of neurotransmitters that if you don't have, lead to depression, anxiety, and memory.
Decrease in the size of the cerebellum.
Reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex during depressive stage.

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision- making and problem solving.
The hippocampus is responsible for memory, organizing, and storing.
The hypothalamus is responsible for homeostasis of the body.
Treatment
There are many different medications that the doctor will prescribe. These medications are often used for other issues, but aid in suppressing the manic episodes and depression. These include:
Lithium carbonate
Olanxapine
Aripiprazole
Risperidone consta
Anticonvulsants
Antipsychotics
Psychotherapy is also used to help the family and patient cope with the mood changes.
Electroconvulsive therapy is used with patients where psychotherapy and medications do not work.
In children, lithium is often used. Mood stabilizing medications may be used first, as treatment with stimulants or antidepressants alone can trigger mania or increase aggression.
Others who were thought to have BD
Abraham Lincoln
Theodore Roosevelt
Beethoven
Isaac Newton
Virginia Woolf
Ernest Hemingway
Charles Dickens
Thanks for watching!
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