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Music and the Treatment of Children with Autism: Lessons from Piano Pedagogy

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Brooke Winters

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Music and the Treatment of Children with Autism: Lessons from Piano Pedagogy

Lessons from Piano Pedagogy
Music and the Treatment of Children with Autism
Quick Facts
10-17% (Autism Society of America, 2010)
1 in 88 (US Centers for Disease Control, 2011)
Revision to diagnostic criteria to come in DSM-V
"autism is characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities" (APA, 2000)
1940s
Music Therapy: a goal-oriented therapeutic method that uses musical means to address non-musical deficits
Arc and development
of music therapy
A. C. Sherwin, 1953
Staum and Flowers, 1964
J. Alvin, 1993
Fundamental goals of music therapy
“(1) to increase the child’s awareness of himself and others, (2) to improve his ability to communicate this awareness, and (3) to help the child improve his self concept by giving him a sense of competence in being able to do something which is significant to others” (Kessler, 1967)
Transferable techniques
moving from familiar to unfamiliar (Goldstein 1964, Wigram 2000)
use of improvisation to communicate (Thaut 1982)
from gross motor movement to fine motor movement (Hollander 1974, Thaut 1982)
consistency with other professionals and parents (Adamek & Darrow 2007)
Warm-up: Marching with the beat!
Challenge: March and clap
What is a half-step?
Space music improvisation
space monster!
shooting star
Play line three of "The Whirlwind"
Our piano bench is a drum!
Assign last line of piece for next week
Bonus Ipad time!!!
Lesson Plan:
Alignment with other professionals:

-how is practicing going at home?

-what are current behavioral goals?

-any changes in reward system?

-should I know about any other updates?
Meeting with parent:
Most applicable to piano pedagogy
F. Hollander- Orff-Schulwerk

Michael Thaut- compiled common methods

Adamek and Darrow
Orff-Schulwerk
movement paired with rhythm and chant
children able to connect nonverbal knowledge (body parts, names of different objects)

F. Hollander (1974)
review of music therapy techniques
develop language, socio-emotional skills, cognitive ability, motor skills
ties etiological and diagnostic characteristics to musical characteristics
Michael Thaut (2000)
Music in Special Education

overview of trends involving students with disabilities
specific chapters for different impairments
behavioral troubleshooting strategies
specific approach strategies
Adamek and Darrow (2010)
Accordino, R., Comer, R., & Heller, W. B. (2007). Searching for music's potential: A critical examination of research on music therapy with individuals with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1, 101-115.

Adamek, M. S., & Darrow, A. A. (2010). Music in special education 2nd ed., Silver Spring, MD: The American Music Therapy Association.

Alvin, J. (1969). Work with an autistic child. In British Society for Music Therapy (Ed.), Music therapy for autistic disability: A collection of articles on autism published in the British Journal of Music Therapy 1968-87, the Journal of British Music Therapy 1987-93, and conference papers of the BSMT 1960-92 (pp. 1-5). Hertfordshire, England: Editor.

Ashcroft, W., Argiro, S., & Keohane, J. (2010). Success strategies for teaching kids with autism. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press Inc.

Bauer, B. (2010), Ten characteristics for teaching students with special needs. Clavier Companion, 18-25.

Boutot, E. A., & Myles, B. S. (2011). Autism spectrum disorders: Foundations, characteristics, and effective strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Chambers, J. G., Parrish, T. B., & Harr, J. J. (2004). What are we spending on special education services in the United States, 1999-2000. No. (1).Center for Special Education Finance.

Chronister, R. (2005). In Darling E. (Ed.), A piano teacher's legacy: Selected writings by Richard Cronister. Kingston, NJ: The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, Inc.

Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2000). (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fink, A. (2009). How to conduct surveys: A step-by-step guide (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Finnigan, E., & Starr, E. (2010). Increasing social responsiveness in a child with autism: A comparison of music and non-music interventions. Autism, 14 (4), 321-348.

Fowler Jr., F. J. (2009). Survey research methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
References
Goldstein, C. (1964). Music and creative arts therapy for an autistic child. Journal of Music Therapy, 1, 135-138.

Hollander, F. M., & Juhrs, p. D. (1974). Orff-Schulwerk, an effective treatment tool with autistic children. Journal of Music Therapy, 11, 1-12.

Hudson, W. C. (1973). Music: A physiologic language. Journal of Music Therapy, 10, 137-140.

Jacobson, J. M. (2006). In Lancaster E. L. (Ed.), Professional piano teaching: A comprehensive piano pedagogy textbook for teaching elementary-level students. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.

Kessler, J. (1967). Therapeutic methods for exceptional c
hildren. Journal of Music Therapy, 4, 1-2.

Kluth, P. (2009). The autism checklist: A practical reference for parents and teachers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1982). How to teach autistic and other severely handicapped children. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED Inc.

Levitin, D. J. (2006). This is your brain on music. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Music therapy and individuals with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. (2011). Retrieved November 29, 2011, 2011, from http://www.musictherapy.org/assets/1/7/MT_Autism_2006.pdf.

Notbohm, E., & Zysk, V. (2010). 1001 great ideas for teaching & raising children with autism or asperger's (2nd ed.). Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.

Price, S. (2010, July/August). All in a day's routine: Piano teaching and autism. Clavier Companion, 10-16.

Reschke-Hernandez, A. E. (2011). History of music therapy treatment interventions for children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 48 (2), 169-207.

Roth, I., & Rezaie, P. (Eds.). (2011). Researching the autism spectrum: Contemporary perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Saperston, B. (1973). The use of music in establishing communication with an autistic mentally retarded child. Journal of Music Therapy, 10, 184-188.

Sherwell, P. (2011, Februrary 26, 2011). Gabrielle Gifford’s: How music therapy is helping her recovery. The Telegraph, Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/8349351/Gabrielle-Giffords-How-music-therapy-is-helping-her-recovery.html#.TsM4Y502neM.email.

Sherwin, A. C. (1953). Reactions to music of autistic (schizophrenic) children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 109(11), 823-831. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=145087.

Simpson, K., & Keen, D. (2011). Music interventions for children with autism: Narrative review of the literature. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(11), 1507-1514.

Staum, M. J., & Flowers, P. J. (1984). The use of simulated training and music lessons in teaching appropriate shopping skills to an autistic child. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1, 14-17.

Stevens, E., & Clark, F. (1969). Music therapy in the treatment of autistic children. Journal of Music Therappy, 6, 98-104.

Thaut, M. H. (1984). A music therapy treatment model for autistic children. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1, 7-13.

Thaut, M. H. (2000). A scientific model of music in therapy and medicine. San Antonio, TX: The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Uszler, M., Gordon, S., & McBride Smith, S. (2000). The well-tempered keyboard teacher (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

What is autism? (2011). Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism.

Wigram, T. (2000). A method of music therapy assessment for the diagnosis of autism and communication disorders in children. Music Therapy Perspectives 18, 13-22.
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