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Ch. 4 Acquiring and Teaching Pronunciation
Transcript of Ch. 4 Acquiring and Teaching Pronunciation
Phonemes are sounds which are distinguished from each other. Allophones are different variations of the same sound which do not change the meaning.
The minimal pairs technique can be used to differentiate between different phonemes.
Most learners go through the same stages when learning phonemes: presystemic, transfer, and approximative.
Phonemes differ in terms of: energy, voice, aspiration, and voice onset time (VOT) among others.
The first language affects the second, and the second affects the first.
QUESTION: How useful do you think it is to directly teach students about distinct sounds? How might it be done? 4.2 Learning Syllable Structure
Syllables are larger than phonemes and consist of phonemes, stress, tone, and more.
Different languages have inherent rules about how syllables can be formed (V, CV, CVC, CCC)
Learners often try to make the L2 fit the syllable rules of their language through epenthesis (adding sounds) or simplification (removing sounds).
QUESTION: How much does a student's L1 affects their pronunciation in L2? 4.3 General Ideas about Phonology Learning
Transfer of linguistic features from a learner's L1 to the L2 makes it difficult to attain a native-like accent.
Pronunciation difficulties arise when the L2 has brand new sounds or when the L2 distinguishes between two sounds which are equivalent in the L1.
In addition to cross-linguistic transfer of pronunciation rules from the L1, all learners have some universal processes which they use to acquire the L2 language system.
QUESTION: How important is having a native-like accent for speaking a second language? Is it more important than correct spelling and grammar? 4.4 Choosing a Model for Teaching Pronunciation
When teaching an L2, the teacher must decide which national, regional, or class variety to teach.
The "standard pronunciation" in the USA is Standard American English (SAE) and Received Pronunciation (RP) in the UK.
Jenkins (2000, 2002) proposes teaching English as a Foreign Language (ELF) with pronunciation targets based on communication between 2 non-native speakers.
QUESTION: What should the target pronunciation be for teachers in NYC? 4.5 Learning and Teaching Pronunciation
Some researchers argue for integrated pronunciation teaching where pronunciation is taught as it comes up in other lesson. Others support explicitly teaching more general pronunciation tendencies of a language.
Corrections and teaching should take into the student's developmental level.
Some techniques for teaching pronunciation include using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), imitation, discrimination activities, consciousness raising, and communication-based strategies.
QUESTION: What have been your experiences with teaching and/or learning pronunciation? Which were effective? 4.6 Learning and Teaching Intonation
Intonation refers to the rise and fall of one's pitch during speech. Tone conveys meaning to some extent in all languages.
Intonation can also reflects one's nationality, status, gender, and region.
Tone languages use tone to convey lexical meaning.
In a communicative approach, the goal is to make students aware of the effects of tone.
QUESTION: As a teacher, is it more beneficial for the students to learn about pronunciation or intonation? Chapter 4: Acquiring and Teaching Pronunciation Pair Activities
Part 1: Find a partner with a different first language than you. While speaking with your partner, find 3-5 words that you pronounce differently. Try to use the terminology from the chapter to describe what exactly is different about your pronunciations. Then, try to think of reasons why your pronunciations varies.
Part 2: You and your partner will be given a slip of paper describing the linguistic background of a student. Based on the chapter, why might this student have this difficulty? What activities or mini-lessons might you design to help this student's specific pronunciation difficulty?