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LITERARY DEVICES IN GREAT EXPECTATIONS
Transcript of LITERARY DEVICES IN GREAT EXPECTATIONS
The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true. Irony is often used to create poignancy or humor. In general, there are three major types of irony used in language:
TYPES OF SYMBOLISM
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give a work a conversational, familiar tone. Colloquial expressions in writing include local or regional dialects.
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses terms related to the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory. On a broader and deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing. For example, a rose may present visual imagery while also representing the color in a woman’s cheeks and/or symbolizing some degree of perfection.
Types of Irony
(1) verbal irony – when the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or speaker’s) meaning
(2) situational irony – when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen
(3) dramatic irony – when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions. Personification is used to make these abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader.
“A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. (…) ”
Example: “‘You young dog,‘ said the man , licking his lips ‘ what a fat cheeks you ha’ got’”
Related to style, diction refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. You should be able to describe an author’s diction (for example, formal or informal, ornate or plain) and understand the ways in which diction can complement the author’s purpose. Diction, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc., creates an author’s style.
Example: As I never saw my father or my mother, and never saw any likeness of either of them (for their days were long before the days of photographs), my first fancies regarding what they were like, were unreasonably derived from their tombstones.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. (The literal Greek meaning is “overshoot.”) Hyperboles often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, hyperbole produces irony. The opposite of hyperbole is understatement.
Example: "He had been drinking, and his eyes were red and bloodshot." Chapter 53
(Olfactory, Visual, Tactile, Gustatory, Auditory)
When Estella kisses Pip after she been insulting him the whole time and she goes back to insulting him short after
Carolina Tamen, Charlotte Swalef Juliana Sarmento, Mariya Nyzhnikova
"When I saw that Estella stood at the back of Miss Havisham's chair, and that her eyes laughed mischievously, I took the indentures out of this hand and gave them to Miss Havisham."
"Great Expectations", Chapter 13
Natural symbols are objects and occurrences from nature to symbolize ideas commonly associated with them (dawn symbolizing hope or a new beginning, a rose symbolizing love, a tree symbolizing knowledge).
conventional symbols are those that have been invested with meaning by a group (religious symbols such as a cross or Star of David; national symbols, such as a flag or an eagle; or group symbols, such as a skull and crossbones for pirates or the scale of justice for lawyers).
Literary symbols are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a variety of works and are more generally recognized. However, a work’s symbols may be more complicated, as is the jungle in Heart of Darkness.
Miss Havisham's shoe and wedding dress- the shoe and the wedding dress represent Miss. Havisham’s life and how sad she is for being left at the altar.
The stopped clocks- the stopped clocks represent an effort to stop time, even though it is not possible. Ms. Havisham wants to stop time so that her life won’t go on.
Weather- the weather represents the darkness and the sadness of the marshes.
Joe Gargery- Joe Gargery represents happiness, care, and inspiration.
Generally, anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually a symbol is something concrete -- such as an object, action, character, or scene – that represents something more abstract.