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The Haber Process

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Madelin Weston

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of The Haber Process

Why is it an important Chemical Process? "The Haber process is important because prior to its discovery, ammonia had been difficult to produce on an industrial scale, and fertilizer generated from ammonia today is responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population." Who Discovered the Haber Process? What is the Haber Process? How is the Haber Process used in Industrial & Health Fields? The Haber Process makes the ammonia which is used in these products:
Nitric Acid- Used to make explosives
Nitroglycerine, which is as heart medicine
Hydrazine- used in rocket propulsion systems
Refrigeration- used in air conditioning
Paper- Used to make paper
Mining- Used in zinc and nickel extraction
Cleaning- Used as a cleaning agent The Balanced Equation Le Chatelier's Principle (or why the conditions favor the forward reaction) a.k.a the Haber–Bosch process The Haber Process Bibliography "Biography." Fritz Haber. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1918/haber-bio.html>.
"Fritz Haber: Great Minds." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Aug. 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
"Haber Flow." ChemGuide. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/haberflow.gif>.
"Haber Process." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Apr. 2013. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
"Science Aid: Ammonia and Haber Process." Science Aid: Ammonia and Haber Process. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/applied/haber.html>.
"Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)." Chemistry Tutorial : Haber Process for Ammonia Production. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ausetute.com.au/haberpro.html>.
"Why Is the Haber Process Important?" WikiAnswers. Answers, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_the_haber_process_important>. Endothermic or Exothermic? What safety, cost, or other considerations prevent most industrial applications from using the most ideal conditions for high yield of the product? What catalyst, if any, is used for this reaction? An Interesting Video on Fritz Haber- A Brilliant (and Heartless!) Scientist The Haber process is the process and set of conditions used to combine Nitrogen and Hydrogen to produce Ammonia. Early in the 20th century, there was a shortage of fertilizers. Fritz Haber, a German chemist, tried to find a solution. He knew if he could combine Nitrogen and Hydrogen (to form Ammonia), he could use that to make fertilizer. Apparently, the Germans were also really interested in the process because things were starting up for WWI and they were needing nitrogen for explosives. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1918/haber-bio.html http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_the_haber_process_important http://www.ausetute.com.au/haberpro.html The Haber process is an exothermic reaction. This process (combining nitrogen and hydrogen) produces ammonia and heat. Here is how the Haber Process works:
1) You need a medium temperature (about 450 degrees Celisius
2) You need a very high pressure (about 200 atmospheres)
3) You need a catalyst
The reaction between the nitrogen and hydrogen gas produces ammonia The Haber process needs a catalyst. It needs a "a porous iron catalyst prepared by reducing magnetite, Fe3O4). Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive." http://www.ausetute.com.au/haberpro.html There are two things you can do. 1) Increase the pressure and 2) Decrease the temperature. Here is what happens when you do that.

Increase the Pressure
This makes the equilibrium position move to the right (which makes more ammonia) This is because there are more moles on the left side of the equation, so when there is more pressure, the system moves to the side that has less moles.

Decrease the Temperature
This makes the equilibrium position move to the right (which makes more ammonia). This is because this is an exothermic reaction. So when you lower the temperature, the system moves to the right to produce more heat.

But it doesn't sound like decreasing the temperature is a good idea because : "the rate of the reaction at lower temperatures is extremely slow, so a higher temperature must be used to speed up the reaction which results in a lower yield of ammonia." http://www.ausetute.com.au/haberpro.html Increasing pressure is the easiest way to make more ammonia. But when you increase pressure, you have to make and use stronger containers, pipes and valves and this can be really expensive. It can also be dangerous to work with chemicals at high pressures. It also takes a lot of energy to run pumps and compressors to make the high pressure. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haber_process http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/haber.html www.youtube.com Fritz Haber: Great Minds
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