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Governments during the American Regime

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John Ang

on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of Governments during the American Regime

This period began after Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines from Hong Kong on May 19, 1898.
The Philippine-American War
The Military Government
Malolos Congress (1898 – 1900)
The Military Government
Functions and Powers of the Legislative Branch of the First Republic
The Military Government
The U.S. government declared military rule in the Philippines on December 21, 1898.
Group 3
Governments during the American Regime
The Filipino revolutionaries became convinced that the United States was preparing to take over sovereignty over the Philippines from Spain.
President William McKinley issued his "Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation".
The Filipino revolutionists had convened a revolutionary constitutional congress to draft a constitution for a Philippine Republic on September 15, 1898.

The revolutionists inaugurated the First Philippine Republic at Malolos on January 23, 1899.
This was also known as the Assembly of Representatives and was the lawmaking body of the First Republic.
It was a unicameral body composed of representatives.
1. To watch over the interest of the Philippine people;

2. To carry out the revolutionary laws and discuss the vote upon said laws;

3. To discuss and approve treaties and loans; and

4. To examine and approve the accounts presented annually by the Secretary of Finance, as well as “extraordinary and other taxes which may be here-after imposed."
The Military Government
Reasons prompted the creation and convening of the Malolos Congress:
to attract the country’s elite—the intellectuals and the wealthy—to join the revolution

to make good impression on foreign powers

to enhance the image of the new Republic
The Military Government
Its first official act was the ratification of the “Act of Declaration of Independence” on September 29, 1898.
Conflict Phase of the Philippine-American War
Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion against the U.S. military government in the Philippines beginning on November 1, 1899.

Filipino rebels commanded by General Licerio Geronimo attacked U.S. troops commanded by General Henry Ware Lawton near San Mateo on December 19, 1899.

U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Catubig on April 15-19, 1900.

U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Cagayan de Misamis on June 4, 1900.

U.S. troops clashed with Filipino rebels near Pulang Lupa on the island of Marinduque on September 13, 1900.
U.S. troops commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr. clashed with Filipino rebels commanded by General Juan Cailles near Mabitac on September 17, 1900.

Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by Filipino troops loyal to the U.S. government on March 23, 1901, and he was replaced by General Miguel Malvar as rebel leader.

Emilio Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. government on April 19, 1901.

Moros attacked U.S. troops in the town of Balangiga on the island of Samar on September 28, 1901.

The U.S. military established and maintained concentration camps with some 298,000 Filipinos in the province of Batangas from January to April 1902.

U.S. and Filipino troops suppressed the rebellion with the surrender of General Miguel Malvar on April 16, 1902.
The Military Government
Wesley Merritt
August 14, 1898 – August 30, 1898
Elwell S. Otis
August 28, 1898 – May 5, 1900
Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
May 5, 1900 – July 4, 1901
Adna Chaffee
July 4, 1901 – July 4, 1902
Military Governors
The Civil Government
The Civil Government was established through the Spooner Amendment.

It was inaugurated on the 4th day of July year 1901.

The highest authority in this government is the Civil Governor which was later change to the title of Governor-general on the 6th day of February, year 1905.
The Civil Government
Judge H. William Taft became the first Civil-Governor;

He was followed by Luke F. Wright who became the first American to have the title of Philippine Governor-General.

Wright was followed by Governor-General Frank Murphy who also became the first High Commissioner of the United States to the Philippines
The Commonwealth Government
It was the government in the Philippines from 1935 to 1946.

In 1933, the United States congress passed the law of Hare-Hawes-Cutting law but was turned down.

The Tydings-Mcduffie law was approved instead.


It stated:

(1) to build the Commonwealth Government in order to prepare the Filipinos in governing their own country but have to wait 10 years before they will receive full independency and;

(2) laws that the Commonwealth Government would implement should be approve by the United States.
The Commonwealth Government
Laws implemented
• National Defense act

• Women’s Suffrage act

• Executive Order No. 134

• Minimum wage law

• Eight hour labor law
The Commonwealth Government
Presidents of the Commonwealth Government
Manuel L. Quezon
November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944
Sergio Osmeña Sr.
August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946
Manuel A. Roxas
May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948
Full transcript