The History of Negative Numbers People Brahmagupta Indian Mathematician Used negative numbers

to help gain the common

quadratic formula we have

today ax^2+bx+c Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art 7th Centry CE 100 BCE-50 CE Used red rods to represent positive numbers Used black rods to represent negative numbers = positive = negative History Euler 18th Century Europe His book starts off with positive and negative numbers Origins He used debt as a means to justify negative numbers John Wallis 17th Century First to use negative numbers in a

sense of direction Realized that the number line

is a geometrical representation of

the number system Effect Controversy Setting Cause Chinese Italy Indian *The first mention of negative numbers can be traced back to the chinese in 200 B.C.E *They used the rod system to perform problems with negative numbers in it *Although negative numbers are mentioned they are not fully acknowledged as an existing value. The chinese rejected any results that came out as negative * Around the 1300's a chinese mathematician gave the "rule of sign" *Negative numbers began to appear in India around 620 C.E. *They first began to appear in the work of Brahmagupta. *Negative numbers appeared in issues dealing with currency *Negative numbers also appeared in issues dealing with money, similar to the chinese. *Brahmagupta addressed his numbers by affirmative, meaning positive *In the 16th century, around 1545 the study of solutions of equations began in Italy *Soon after the Italian mathematician Cardano began to recognize negative roots. *Then Cardano clearly stated the rules of negative. Negative numbers were not seen as real answers and most mathematicians disregarded any answer that was negative. The disregard was due to a lack of understanding of what the numbers represented. 17th and 18th century European mathematicians were actively using negative and imaginary numbers, despite the lack of comfort with their 'meaning'. No one culture began the controversy. correct answers were disregarded

later seen as debt or loss

introduction of the number line "To really obtain an isolated negative quantity, it would be necessary to cut off an effective quantity from zero, to remove something of nothing: an impossible operation. How thus to conceive an isolated negative quantity?" Carnot Leo Rogers.NRICH.http://nrich.maths.or g/5961 (October 1, 2012), The History of Negative Numbers

Jill Howard. NRICH.http://nrich.maths. org/5747 (October 1, 2012), Negative Numbers

Cecilia Kilhamn. Gothenburg University Publications Electronic Archive (October 1, 2012), Making Sense of Negative Numbers

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# History of Negative Numbers

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