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Copy of Freshwater Biome
Transcript of Copy of Freshwater Biome
A Pilot Study into the Prevalence of Cryptobia iubilans Infections in Discus fish
in Trinidad Arianne Ali
Risha Sookdeo Objectives: To determine the extent to which Discus fish in Trinidad are infected with Cryptobia iubilans.
To determine the relationship (if any) between age and infection with C. iubilans.
To determine the relationship between infection status and manifestation of clinical signs. Hypothesis: At least 50% of the estimated Discus population in Trinidad show evidence of infection with Cryptobia iubilans . Why we did this project:
A number of moribund Discus fish were submitted to the Aquatic Animal Health Unit that showed signs consistent with Cryptobia iubilans infection What is a Discus fish? What is Cryptobia iubilans? Cryptobia iubilans was first recognized in Cichlids 20 years ago
actively mobile bi-flagellated protozoan
enteric parasite How is it transmitted? direct life cycle
infective forms - shed in faeces
infection - via ingestion Lesions?
Large numbers of granulomas uniquely found in the stomach
Some granulomas may be found in the intestine Differential diagnosis?
-Mycobacterium spp. EXPERIMENTAL PLAN Sample Size Calculation Video of an active C. iubilans infection! Results Table 1: Summary of results DISCUSSION For sample size calculation, the following formula was used for an infinite population: N adjusted was performed for the estimated population of 5000 animals using the following formula: A minimum of 27 animals were required to be sampled for an accurate representation of the prevalence.
In our study 32 animals were sampled.
Local vs imported animals and zones were not used for statistical analysis.
The significance of the positive animals not displaying clinical signs!
The severe granulomatous gastritis associated with Cryptobia iubilans:
effaces the normal stomach architecture
accounts for an overall ill-thrift
predisposes to immnunocompromisation
-mycobacteriosis clinically manifests when an animal is
immunocompromised. Limitations All size classes could not be acquired (fry)
Electron microscopy unavailable
Financial restraint Recommendations No treatment clinically proven to be completely effective against C. iubilans infection.
Dimetridazole - most efficacious in treating active infections at this time
80mg/L every 24hrs for 3days (bath)
Further studies are ongoing
Breeders and hobbyists must employ proper biosecurity measures to prevent further spread of Cryptobia iubilans
It is hoped that this pilot investigation:
Increases public awareness
Provides a foundation for further research
No research done on this organism locally prior to this investigation REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS God
Dr. Carla Phillips
Mr. Rakesh Bhukal
Dr. Rod Suepaul
Dr. Ridley Holder
Mr. Gerald Chandoo
Mr. Michael Samlal
Mr. Lester Gilkes
Mr. Anthony Bastaldo
Aquatic Animal Health Unit
Public Health Department
Ministry of Food Production, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Map 1: Showing the various locations where samples were obtained Data Analysis: Frequency Procedure Statistical Analysis System software version 9.1.3. SAS Learning Edition © 2006
The Overall prevalence of C. iubilans infection= 81.25%
The Overall prevalence of Dual infections = 21.88% Necropsy on Discus fish Granulomas found in the stomach Acid Fast Ziehl–Neelsen stain Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain on section of stomach The End SUPERVISOR: Dr. Carla Phillips Hematoxylin and Eosin stained stomach section Hematoxylin and Eosin stained stomach section Acid Fast Histo stain (for Mycobacteria spp) 1.Tuan Bui: Planted Discus Tank. c2013 [uploaded 2012 Feb 19; cited 2013 Jan 28].
Available from: http: //www.youtube.com/watch xc?v= VCaTe
2.Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd edition: Micheal Thrustfield; Blackwell Publishing; 2007
3. Cryptobia iubilans infection in juvenile Discus. Roy P.E Yanong et al. c2013
[updated 2004 May 15; cited 2013 Jan 29]
Available from; http://moreinfo.flaquarium.org/husbandrywebfolder/Public/Conservation%20Library/Yanong%20et%20al%202004.pdf
4. Mycobacterial Infections of Fish. Ruth Francis Floyd. Nov 2011
5. Ruth Francis – Floyd. Mycobacterial Infection of Fish. c2013 [updated 2011 Nov]
6.The Merck Veterinary Manual; Exotic and Laboratory Animals : Fish : Fish Health Management : Parasitic Diseases : Internal Protozoan Parasites
7.Nohynkova E. A new pathogenic Cryptobia from freshwater fishes: a light and electron microscope study. Protistologica 1998; 20: 181 – 195
8.Ferguson HW, Rosendal S, Groom S. Gastritis in Lake Tanganyika ciclids (Tropheus duboisi). Vet Rec 1985; 116:687-689
11. Noga EJ. Diet – associated systemic granuloma in African cichlids. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 189: 1145 – 1148
9.Furguson HW. Systemic pathology of fish. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989;263
10. Roberts RJ. Fish pathology. 3rd ed. London. Harcourt Publishers Ltd, 2001;472