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British Literature

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Samantha Tedrow

on 18 October 2018

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Transcript of British Literature

British Literature
Anglo-Saxon Period- A.D. 449-1066
Medieval Period- 1066-1485
The Renaissance- 1485-1625
The Enlightenment 1625-1798
The Romantic Period- 1798-1832
The Victorian Period- 1832-1901
The Modernist Period- 1901-1940
Important Authors
Literary Themes
Belief in Fate
Juxtoposition of Christianity and Paganism
The Epic Hero
Moral instruction through Literature
Important Movements and Genres
The arrival of Christianity
Literacy beginning to spread
Oral Tradition
Poetry (both narrative and lyric)
Important Historical Events
43-ca. 420 Romans conquer Britons; Brittania a province of the Roman Empire
ca. 450 Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britons begins
597 St. Augustine of Canterbury's mission to Kent begins conversion of Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
ca. 787 First Viking raids on England
871- 99 Reign of King Alfred
1066- The Norman Conquest
Important People
Theme-the central idea of the text
Point of View-the perspective from when the story is told
Setting-where and when the story takes place
Mood-the feeling or atmosphere created by the language of the text
Tone- the writer’s attitude toward the reader or the subject of the text
Conflict-the struggle between opposing forces
Alliteration- repetition of consonant sounds
Assonance- repetition of vowel sounds
Caesura- a natural pause in the middle of a line of poetry
Epic-long narrative poem about the adventures of gods or heroes
Narrative Poem- a poem that tells a story
Kenning-a metaphorical phrase used in Anglo-Saxon poetry to replace concrete nouns
Important Authors
Geoffrey of Monmouth-
The History of the Kings of England
Sir Thomas Mallory
- Le Morte de Arthur
The Pearl Poet-
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Geoffrey Chaucer-
The Canterbury Tales
Themes of the Medieval Period
Code of chivalry and honor
Religious Devotion- the Catholic Church
French Influences
Historical Events
1066- The Norman Invasion
1095-1221- The Crusades
1215- King John signs the Magna Carta
1337-1533- Hundred Years War
1348- The Black Death
1362- English first used in Court
1415- Henry V defeats French at
1476- William Caxton sets up first
printing press in England
Important People
King William the Conquerer
King Richard the Lion Heart
King John
King Richard III
Important Movements and Genres
Arthurian Legends
Morality Plays
Literature for instruction
Continuance of oral tradition through minstrels and troubadors
Rhyme instead of alliteration
Allegory- a literary work with two or more levels of meaning
Frame Story- a story within a story
Arthurian Legend- literature set in the world of King Arthur and Camelot.
Archetype – patterns found in literature around the world
Symbol- something that stands for something beyond itself
Important Historical Events
1485- Henry VII establishes the Tudor dynasty
1517- Beginnings of the Protestant Reformation
1519- Cortes invades Mexico and Magellen begins his trip around the world
1558- Elizabeth I becomes queen.
1570- Elizabeth I excommunicated by the Catholic Church
1584-87- attempts to colonize Virginia
1588- Spanish Armada
1603- Death of Queen Elizabeth
Important People
Henry VII- First Tudor king
Henry VIII- You know him
Elizabeth I- inspires The Golden Age
King James I of Scotland- The King James Bible
Martin Luthor- 95 Theses
Sir Walter Raleigh- Explorer and close confidant of Queen Elizabeth
Important Authors
-Edmund Spencer: The Fairie Queen (an allegory about Elizabeth I
-John Donne- Poetry
-John Milton: Paradise Lost (Epic poem about the fall of Lucifer
-Christopher Marlowe- the University Wits (murdered)
-Ben Jonson- Plays and Poetry
-William Shakespeare- More on him later...
Important Movements and Genres
-Introduction of the printing press
-The Protestant Reformation
-Rise of the Middle Class

-Poetry- the sonnet
Literary Themes
-Humanism- changing the world view of religion and the afterlife to concentrating on human lives in this world
-Exploration of the New World
-Metaphysics- Scientific Development
Asides- Words spoken by a character in a play, usually in an undertone so that the other
characters do not hear.

Dialogue- conversation between two or more characters
Monologue- a speech or performance given by one character or person
Dramatic Irony- when the audiences knows something the character does not
Character- personality that takes part in a literary work
Protagonist- the primary character of the story
Antagonist- the character that opposes the protagonist
Lyric poetry- poetry expressing observations and feelings
Stanza- a group of lines in a poem that are seen as a single unit (often separated by spaces)
Sonnet- a 14 line lyric poem with a single theme
Quatrain- a four line stanza
Couplet- a pair of consecutive rhyming lines
Iambic Pentameter- Line of poetry with 5 stressed and 5 unstressed syllables.
Blank Verse- unrhymed iambic pentameter
Important People
Charles I- Executed during the English Civil War; Puritans get all worked up.
George III- King during the American Revolution through the end of the period.

Important Events

1644-1651- English Civil War (Puritans)
1666- Plague and Fire
1662-1685- Anti-Catholic Movement
1759- capture of Quebec ensures British control of Canada
1768- Travels to Australia and New Zealand
1776- American Revolution
1780- Riots in London
1789- Beginning of the French Revolution
Important Movements
Can be divided into two submovements
The Restoration (1660-1689)
The Neoclassical period (1670-1785)
50% of males are functionally literate- a dramatic rise
demise of traditional village life
the rise of factories begin the industrial revolution
industrialization causes a rise in poverty
rise in scientific discoveries
personal literature- biographies, diaries, and letters
Important Authors
John Dryden- Poetry and Allegory
Alexander Pope- Satire and poetry
Samuel Pepys- Diary
Jonathan Swift- Satire and Novel
Samuel Johnson- Dictionary
Literary Themes
emphasis on logic and reason
expectation that the subjects of the government have "natural rights"
emphasis on the individual
belief that humans are basically evil
focus on the classics (Latin and Greek)
Catholicism vs. Protestantism
Carpe Diem- Latin for “seize the day”
Hyperbole- a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
Irony- the difference between expectation and reality
Paradox- a statement that seems contradictory but actually reveals a truth
Satire- writing that points out the ridiculous
Important People
King George III- was crazy
King George IV- ascended to the throne in 1820 after acting as king for his crazy father
Napoleon- French Emperor
Important Historical Events
1798- Irish Rebellion
1804- Napoleon crowned Emperor
1807- Abolition of the Slave Trade
1815- Corn Laws passed, protecting economic interests of the landed aristocracy
1832- Reform Bill passed- middle class represented in Parliament
Important Movements
The idea that government should not be involved in private enterprise
middle class gains representation
technological advancements like railroads and gas lamps
industrial revolution begins
Gothic Novels
Lyric Poetry
Literary Themes
Focus on the individual
Nature brings us knowledge and closeness to God as well as a peace that urbanized towns cannot offer
Horror and Gothic elements
common people idealized as dependable source of true common sense
Children are the epitome of innocence
Imagination takes precedence over logic
Important Authors
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
George, Lord Byron
John Keats
Percy Shelley

Anne Radcliffe
Jane Austin
Mary Shelley
Simile: a comparison that uses “like,” “as,” or “than”
Metaphor:a direct comparison
Personification: a non-human subject is given human characteristics
Oxymoron: figures of speech that uses two contradictory ideas
Allusion: a reference to a well-known person, place, event, work, or work of art
Gothic Literature: literature that makes use of primitive, medieval, wild, mysterious, or natural

Important People
Queen Victoria- Ruled for 64 years
Nobody else mattered.
Important Historical Events
1840- Queen marries Prince Albert
1850- Tennyson succeeds Wordsworth as Poet Laureate
1870- Married Women's Property Act
1878- Electric street lighting
1890- First subway in London
Important Movements
Industrial Revolution
Social Reform
Seperate Spheres
dramatic monlogues
Drama: Comedy of Manners
Literary Themes
Conflict between labor masses and those in power
Shocking life of sweatshops and urban poor
sexual discretion (or lack thereof)
country life vs. city life
focus on the home and families
Important Authors
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Thomas Hardy
Robert and Elizabeth Browning
Charles Dickens
Charlotte Bronte
Oscar Wilde
Important People
Important Historical Events
Important Movements
Literary Themes
Important Authors
King Edward VII- Edwardian Era is a time of opulance and patriotism
King George V- King during WWI
King Edward VIII- abdicates throne to marry divorced woman
King George VI- leads England into WWII
1912- Sinking of the
1914-1918- WWI
1918- Women over 30 given the vote
1919- first woman to have seat in the House of Commons
1922- BBC first broadcast
1929- Great Depression
1939-40- Outbreak of WWII- Winston Churchill election Prime Minister
Experimentation + a return to classic forms

Free Verse Poetry
Alienation and skepticism- the world is empty"
Make it New"- Ezra Pound
Art for Art's sake- Intellecualism and "high art"
Art will save us
Role of women
War and its effects.
D.H. Lawrence
Virginia Woolf
James Joyce
Dylan Thomas
William Butler Yeats
T. S. Eliot
W. H. Auden
Imagery: language that paints vivid images in the reader's mind.
What was Happening in America?
Lots of Native American stuff- consolidation of tribes as well as animal and plant domestication
VIKINGS!- around 1000, Vikings vistited the shores of North America
King Offa- first recorded king
King Aelthelwulf- king with the Vikings began invading
King Alfred the Great- creates peace with the Vikings
King Edward the Confessor- surrenders to Normandy
What's Happening in America?
Height of Native American civilization
Myan, Inca, Aztec
North American settlements
Arrival of Spanish and Portuguese explorers (Conquistadors)
Columbus arrives in the new world in 1492.
What was Happening in America?
1492- Columbus arrives in America
1607- Jamestown Colony
1620- Pilgrims arrive
What's Happening in America?
Pilgrims, Puritans, and colonization,oh my!
establishment of colonies
Salem Witch Trials
American Revolution
Founding Fathers (inventions and publications)
What's Happening in America?
American Revolution
Louisiana Purchase- Westward Expansion
Trail of Tears
Rise of southern slavery
What was happening in America?
American Romanticism- Poe, Hawthorne, etc. and Realism- Twain
fight for abolition, emancipation, and Jim Crow
Civil War and Reconstruction
westward expansion
inventions- telephone, light bulb, baseball

Ambiguity- the effect created when words or events suggest and support two or more interpretations
Dramatic Monologue- a poem in which an imaginary character speaks to a silent listener
Tone- the writer’s attitude toward the reader or the subject of the text
What was happening in America?
A lot of the same:
Women's Rights
World Wars I and II
The Great Depression
And some different
The roaring 20's
The Harlem Renaissance
Full transcript