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PHYSICS CAPACITORS

puso lang
by

Vincent Angelo Pablo

on 12 January 2016

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Transcript of PHYSICS CAPACITORS

Charging
and
DISCHARGING
A
CAPACITOR SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES
1. To prove whether capacitors could store electric potential energy.
2. To experience and explain how capacitors could store electric potential energy.
MATERIALS AND APPARATUS
SET-UP
PROCEDURE
A. Capacitors in Parallel
1. Connect one bulb in the circuit across an 8.66-V potential source. Observe the bulb. Connect the three capacitors in parallel and a compass along the circuit. Observe the bulb and the compass needle.
2. Disconnect the potential and close the circuit. Observe the bulb and the compass needle. Where did the circuit get its potential source?
3. Charge the capacitors again using the 8.66-V potential source. Connect an Ammeter in series with the circuit composed of light bulb and compass. Observe the Ammeter reading and the deflection of the compass needle.
4. Disconnect the potential source and close the circuit. Observe the Ammeter reading, the light bulb, and the compass needle.
5. Charge the capacitors using the 8.66-V potential source once again. Connect a Voltmeter across the capacitors in the circuit composed of light bulb and compass. Observe the Voltmeter reading and the compass needle.
6. Disconnect the potential source from the circuit and then close the circuit again. Observe the Voltmeter reading, the light bulb, and the compass needle.
ANALYSIS
OF
RESULTS

1. What is the net charge on the capacitor?
The net charge on the capacitor is zero. It is because the energy is stored in the capacitor through the separation of opposite charges by using a dielectric material. Each capacitor plate carries a particular charge that is equal but of opposite charge. So the net charge on the capacitor is equal to zero.
2. When do we say that the charging process is already complete?
When both plates of the capacitor get the equal and opposite charges, which is +Q and -Q, and the potential difference Vc starts increasing while the capacitor is charging. Once the voltage at the terminals of the capacitor (Vc) is equal to the supply voltage, that is (V=Vc). The capacitor is fully charged because the current starts flowing through the circuit. Therefore, when the light bulb loses its light, it then indicates that the capacitor is fully charged.
3. What are the factors considered for storing great amount of charge in a capacitor?
Plate Area: All other factors being equal, greater plate area gives greater capacitance; less plate area gives less capacitance.

Plate Spacing: Further plate spacing gives less capacitance, while closer plate spacing gives greater capacitance.

Dielectric Material: Greater permittivity of the dielectric gives greater capacitance; less permittivity of dielectric gives less capacitance.

5. The capacitance of a capacitor is 300 pF. The potential difference between the plates is 1000V. What is the charge Q on each plate?
Given:
C= 300 pF
Potential Difference= 1000V

OBSERVATION
AND
INTERPRETATION

1. A) When the bulb was connected to the circuit across an 8.66-V potential source, it was observed that the bulb emitted a continuously bright light.
1. B) (For the starting charging process) In the Charging process, it was seen that the bulb blinked once with a substandard and deficient light. The compass’ needle pointed out to a clockwise position indicating its direction.
1. C) (For the ongoing charging process) There was no light on the bulb and movement on the compass’ needle observed.
2. A) (For the starting discharging process) In the discharging process, it was seen that the bulb blinked once with a strong/bright light and the needle of the compass moved on a counter-clockwise direction.
2. B) (For the ongoing discharging process) There was no light on the bulb and movement on the compass’ needle observed.
3. A) (For the starting charging process) In the charging process when the Ammeter was connected in series with the circuit composed of light bulbs and compass, the needle of the Ammeter goes to its maximum and returns gradually with a slow motion down to zero. The compass needle moved a clockwise direction.
3. B) (For the ongoing charging process) There was no light on the bulb and movement on the compass needle observed.
4. A) (For the starting discharging process) In the disconnection/discharging process of the potential source, it was seen that the light bulb was still glaring due to the persisting charges left in the capacitor. The compass needle pointed out to a counter-clockwise position indicating its direction, and a rapid full deflection was descried on the ammeter reading.
4. B) ( For the on-going discharging process ) As the capacitor loses its electric current or the charges, it brought to a no reaction capacity to the light bulb. A rapid tumble of deflection was descried on the ammeter reading.
5. A ) In the charging process of the potential source for the capacitor, it was seen that the light bulb produced a dazzling display of light. The voltmeter connected in series with the light bulb and compass produced a rapid development of voltage. The compass needle pointed out to a clockwise position indicating its direction.
5. B) As the current convey potential source from the capacitor, it reached up to 13.02 volts. No light on the bulb and movement on the compass was descried.
5. C) When the main source was removed in the circuit, the charge remained the same.
6. A) In the disconnection/discharging process of the potential source from the circuit, it produced an extreme amount of brightness. It started on 12.96 volts and conveyed a rapid tumble of discharging.
6. B) As the discharging process concluded, it reached a 0.00 volt.
“Voltage is a representation of the electric potential energy”

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-1/voltage-current/

- This potential energy, stored in the form of an electric charge imbalance and capable of provoking electrons to flow through a conductor. The 8.66 V is the stored energy possessed by the potential source which enables the bulb to emit a continuous bright light.
“When a capacitor is connected in a DC circuit, a large current will flow, but only for a short time.”
For B & C
http://www.learnabout-electronics.org/ac_theory/capacitors02.php
- As the capacitor begins to charge, the large current makes the bulb glow brightly. As the current reduces due to the buildup of charge on the capacitor, the bulb dims and goes out once the capacitor is fully charged.
“ When the charged capacitor begins to discharge, the lamp glows brightly once more, dimming and going out as the current falls towards zero due to the diminishing charge on the capacitor. Notice that during discharge, the current is flowing through the lamp in the opposite direction to the flow during the charging period. “
A. The charged capacitor acted as the source of current. The compass moving in counter-clockwise direction indicated that the flow of the current is clockwise. The bulb lit up then faded as the current reduces to zero.
“ When the charged capacitor begins to discharge, the lamp glows brightly once more, dimming and going out as the current falls towards zero due to the diminishing charge on the capacitor. Notice that during discharge, the current is flowing through the lamp in the opposite direction to the flow during the charging period. “
B. The light of the bulb faded for there was no more current. Same goes with the compass. There was no clockwise or counter-clockwise movement already. Also, the voltage on the capacitor was reduced to zero.
- AC THEORY MODULE 02.PDF 4.
“Once the battery and capacitor voltages are equal we can say that the capacitor has reached its maximum charge.”
In the reading of ammeter, its needle deflectedto its maximum value because of the charges it received from the potential energy source.
“To store more energy in a capacitor, the voltage across it must be increased.”
- This means that the more electrons must be added to the (-) plate and more taken away from the (+) plate, necessitating a current in that direction.
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-13/electric-fields-capacitance/
http://www.learnabout-electronics.org/ac_theory/capacitors02.php
“When the capacitor is fully charged at which point the potential between its plates will match the voltage of the battery and the current in the circuit will drop to zero.”
- The charge on the capacitor will be depleted as the current flows. This is when the light bulb will dim and then fizzle out.
http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/55887/capacitor-circuits-with-light-bulb
“In discharging, current jumps to maximum at instant switch is closed; then it decreases.”
A. The charged capacitor acted as the source of current. The compass moving in counter-clockwise direction indicated that the flow of the current is clockwise. The bulb lit up then faded as the current reduces to zero. The ammeter made a full deflection as the current reached its maximum.
- AC THEORY MODULE 02.PDF
“In discharging, current jumps to maximum at instant switch is closed; then it decreases.”
B. The ammeter was decreasing till it reached the minimum. The current reduces till it reached zero.
- AC THEORY MODULE 02.PDF
A & B
“If a source of voltage is suddenly applied to an uncharged capacitor (a sudden increase of voltage), the capacitor will draw current from that source, absorbing energy from it, until the capacitor’s voltage equals that of the source. “
- There is a rapid and continuous development of voltage because the capacitor is absorbing the energy from the potential source.
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-13/electric-fields-capacitance/
“In their ability to discharged, capacitors can be thought as acting somewhat like secondary-cell batteries.”
- There are number of voltage remained in the capacitor due to the charge stored in the capacitor during the charging process.
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/textbook/direct-current/chpt-13/electric-fields-capacitance/
“ When the charged capacitor begins to discharge, the lamp glows brightly once more, dimming and going out as the current falls towards zero due to the diminishing charge on the capacitor. Notice that during discharge, the current is flowing through the lamp in the opposite direction to the flow during the charging period. “ “Voltage decreases as capacitor discharges.”
The charged capacitor acted as the source of current. The compass moving in counter-clockwise direction indicated that the flow of the current is clockwise. The bulb lit up then faded as the current reduces to zero. At instant switch was closed, the reading on the voltmeter started dropping.
- AC THEORY MODULE 02.PDF
“ When the charged capacitor begins to discharge, the lamp glows brightly once more, dimming and going out as the current falls towards zero due to the diminishing charge on the capacitor. Notice that during discharge, the current is flowing through the lamp in the opposite direction to the flow during the charging period. “ “Voltage decreases as capacitor discharges.”
B. The reading on the voltmeter reached zero. The voltage on the capacitor was already zero.
- AC THEORY MODULE 02.PDF
THEORY
When do we say that discharging capacitor can be a shocking experience?
We can say that discharging capacitor can be a shocking experience when you touch the terminals of a charged capacitor, allowing the current to flow to your body.
SET-UP 1A
SETUP 1B & 1C
SET-UP 2A & 2B
SET-UP 3A & 3B
SET-UP 4A & 4B
SET-UP 5A & 5B
SET-UP 5C
SET-UP 6A & 6B
CONCLUSION
Based on the experiment conducted, it is proven that the capacitors can store electric potential energy. Disconnected from the power source, closing the circuit made the capacitors became the potential source of electricity for the bulb and the compass to react.
The capacitors store energy throught the collection of positive and negative charges in each plate which results to a formation of an electric field with a zero net charge.
1. To prove whether capacitors could store electric potential energy.
2. To experience and explain how capacitors could store electric potential energy.
It requires potential energy to charge a capacitor from a source. But as the capacitor discharges, it turns out to have the ability to serve as the potential source in the circuit.
POWER SOURCE
CAPACITOR
LIGHT BULB
COMPASS
AMMETER
VOLTMETER
WIRES
Full transcript