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Florina Galben

on 18 February 2014

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pentru obţinerea gradului didactic I

Coordonator ştiinţific,
Lector.Univ. Dr. Bianca Doris Bretan

Candidat, Prof.Florina –Letitia Leonte ( Galben)
Liceul cu Program Sportiv – Bistrita
Seria 2012-2014

2.Principles of
teaching vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary through extensive reading activities
Introduction and topic investigation
How words are learned

I. Introduction 5
II. Topic investigation 5
II. 1. Purpose of the study 5
II. 2. Justification of the study 6
II. 3. Research questions and hypotheses 7
III. How words are learned 8
III. 1. Historical background of teaching vocabulary 8
III. 2. Second language vocabulary acquisition 12
III. 3. Receptive and productive learning 13
III. 4. The role of memory in vocabulary acquisition 15
III. 5. Presentation of vocabulary 16
III.6. The principles of teaching vocabulary 18
III. 7. Teaching for presenting new vocabulary 20
III.8. Games for vocabulary revision 25
III. 9. Vocabulary activities 29
III. 10. How to test vocabulary 31
IV. Teaching vocabulary through extensive reading activities 41
IV. 1. Intensive vs. extensive reading 42
IV. 2. The benefits of extensive reading 45
IV.3. Useful / Effective reading 46
IV. 4. The basic principles of extensive reading 48
IV.5. The lay out of the reading activities 50
IV.6. Extensive reading activities 51
IV. 7. Materials for extensive reading 53

V. Procedures of the research 56
V.1. Introduction 56
V.2. Description of the research design 56
V.3. Description of the sample 57
V.4. Description of instruments used 57
V.5. Comparison of data 63
V.6. Answering questions 64
VI. Conclusions 65
Bibliography 67
A. Methodology 67
B. Course books 69
C. Online sources 69
Appendixes 70
Appendix A - Vocabulary Initial test 70
Appendix B – Vocabulary Final test 73
Appendix C – Book Report Form 76
“Vocabulary acquisition is the largest and most important task facing the language learner” (Swan and Walter)

Purpose of the study:
to find out whether the extensive reading can improve students' vocabulary
to explore the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies designed to assist students enhance their vocabulary through extensive reading.
to describe and analyse various methods, samples, instruments and procedures used in the present research.
Research questions and hypotheses:

1. Does extensive reading lead to vocabulary acquisition?
2. Does literature enhance students’ reading motivation?
1. Methods of teaching
-focus on structural patterns and drills
-keeps vocabulary teaching at minimum
Grammar translation method
focus on reading and writing skills
vocabulary used as illustration of grammar rules--> students learn by use of bilingual word lists

Direct method
-focus on the exclusive use of the second language
-introduction of vocabulary through use of pictures, mimics and realia
Situational approach
focus on teaching language in sentence patterns replicating real situations
vocabulary presented as lists in substitution tables
Natural approach
communicative language learning
grammar and vocabulary are linked in the language teaching process
Aim and needs
teacher's choice of the words that should be learned by students
necessity to select highly-frequency words
estimation of the number of words to be learned per lesson
matching of vocabulary quantity with students' language level
students should distinguish between formal and informal register
students should use specific vocabulary depending on the situation (sports, leisure, music etc.)
students need to understand clearly the meaning and the different uses of the words they learn
Frequent exposure and repetitions
repetition of words (in different situations) is essential for the understanding and comprehension of vocabulary
Techniques for presenting new vocabulary
Student-centred approach
encouraging student interaction in the class
contextual guesswork by use of dictionary
Traditional approaches
1. Visual techniques( pictures, realia, gestures)

2. Verbal techniques (synonyms/antonyms, scales

3. Translations
Games for vocabulary revision
Tic –Tac –Toe
Five favourite words
Adding letters to form a new word
Back to board
Board Run
Chain story
The best sentence
Team vocabulary race
What’s this called in English?
Where are you going?
Same, opposite or different dictation
Guess the word

Vocabulary activities
1. Word mapping
2. Vocabulary ladder puzzle
Vocabulary testing
-validity and reliability of tests is essential
-tests should reflect accuracy and progress of the students
Odd-one out
-exercises are easy to prepare
-varied amount of items
Find the odd one out:
1.pay rise, increase, bonus, inflation
2. wages, salary, costs, income
(From Mission coursebook, by Virginia Evans, Express Publishing, 2005, p. 13)
-students are asked to write the word that corresponds to the given definition

A...................is a person who teaches in your class.
......................is a loud noise that you hear after lightning in a storm.
..................is the first day of the week.
-teachers can test passive vocabulary
Multiple choice questions
-consist of stem and response options
-demonstrate learners' knowledge of synonyms, antonyms and meanings
-objective evaluation
Cloze test
-gap-filling activities test the ability to produce, not just recognize words
-shorter, less difficult tests
Write one word for each of the given pictures
"The best way to improve your knowledge of a foreign language is to go and live among the speakers. The next best way is to read exensively."
Intensive vs. extensive reading
Intensive reading: reading texts which usually takes place in classroom
Extensive reading: teacher encourages students to choose reading texts by themselves
Principles of extensive reading
Julian Bamford and Richard R. Day :
1. The reading material is easy
2. A variety of material on a wide range
of topics is available.
3. Learners choose what they want to read.
4.Learners read as much as possible,
5.Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
6. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure information and general understanding.
7. Reading is individual and silent.
8. Reading is its own words.
9. The teacher orients and guides the students.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reality.
Extensive reading activities
1. Prediction activities
2. While-reading activities

3. After-reading activities (re-visiting books and book reports)
Story web
Chain story
Plot log
Vocabulary journal
Procedures of the research
Goals of the present study:
setting the language level of the students in the experimental class
recording, monitoring and comparing the results obtained by both students in the experimental class and the control one during the stages of initial and final tests
selecting the reading material meant to reveal the degree of the students' success in acquiring vocabulary
Questions in the quiz
1. Do you like reading?
2. How many hours a day do you read?
3. What kind of books do you prefer reading?
4. Do you have a favorite author?
5. Do you think reading is important? Why?

The findings of the research:
Extensive reading activities --> better usage of language skills especially in vocabulary acquisition
--> students will be more inclined to include reading as part of their daily routine.

Students’ motivation to read literature depends on
--> organisation of the curriculum,
-->the number of weekly classes
-->ability of the teacher to introduce genuine pieces of literature in the
teaching process.

The most encouraging results of all research came in the optional comments of the students:

“I didn’t like reading before but now I adore it” (Andreea E - XthG)
“I learned many new words by reading books” (Marius M-Xth B)
"We read for pleasure while we’re learning new words” (Radu M - XthG)
“Since I read stories I started loving English” (Daria B - XthG)
“It helped me to improve my vocabulary” (Emilan R - XthB)
“My second English book will be David Beckham’s Biography”
(Georgel – XthB)

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