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Copy of ROMANESQUE

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nathan john

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of ROMANESQUE

ROMANESQUE This art appeared during the Middle Age
It is the first style that can be found all over Europe, even when regional differences
The expansion of the style was linked to the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago. Romanesque art developed thanks to a series of causes:
The end of Barbarian invasions
The decomposition of Cordoba’s caliphate
The establishment of peace in the Christian world, with the development of the cities,
commerce and industry. The term “Romanesque” first used in the 19th century. The word Romanesque originally meant "in the Roman manner.“ introduction expansion The factors of the expansion of Romanesque art were:
Development of feudal system, that demanded works (castles)
The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries
The pilgrimage routes
The crusades TYPOLOGIES There are three main architectonical typologies CASTLES MONASTERIES CHURCHES CASTLES Castles were defensive constructions
They were fortified for providing shelter
The wall was one of the essential elements
They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend.                                                                              It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of God
They had several dependencies:
Church
Cloister
Chapter room
Abbot’s house
Monks/ nuns rooms
Refectory
Hospital Monastery Latin cross Polygonal Basilical Characteristics:
Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches
Small in country churches
They were designed for advertising Catholic church
They were lasting, made of stone
Plans could be:
Latin cross
Polygonal
Basilical Church Parts of the plan Church Parts from the outside Church Elevation:
The church is covered by
stoned vaults
Wall are thick
They need strong
buttresses
Foundations are strong
Few windows Church Clerestory Tribune Pillar Column Interior elevation: it consists of three levels:
First floor with columns or cross-shaped pillars
Second floor with the tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles)
Clerestory: area of windows opening to the outside. Church Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Type of covers: Church DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE long houses city houses and tower houses town houses commercial buildings civic buildings Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture

-harmonious proportions
-stone barrel vault or groin vault
-thick and heavy walls
-thick and heavy pillars
-small windows
-round arches supporting the roof
-round "blind arches" used extensively for decoration inside and out (especially out)
-nave with side aisles (though some modest churches are aisleless)


-galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium
-a transept (section crossing the nave at a right angle, giving the church a cross shape)
-an apse (semicircular niche, usually in the east end)
-an ambulatory (often with radiating chapels) around the apse
-multiple towers, usually at the west end and over the transept crossing
-sculptured decoration on portals, capitals and other surfaces (except in Cistercian monasteries)
-painted decoration throughout the interior (little of which survives today) summary
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