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Transcript of Sami Presentation
Families would have several dwellings, each for different seasons.
, or the shorter
, were storehouses designed to keep reindeer meat away from predators.
Earth House or Torvgamme
The earliest of the Sami dwellings are earth houses which have one-room.
Animals and humans lived there side by side.
ECONOMY & TRADE
The Sami Flag
A sami group that lived together is called a siida.
They resided at the head of the fjords during the winter and during the summer they resided at the mouth of the fjords
the women took the cows and sheep to the pastures up the valley
the men were away fishing and they would sycthe the grass at midsummer to make hay to feed the livestock
their means of subsistence were based on the exploitation of natural resources
The traditional sami religion was shamanistic, polytheistic and animistic.
The Noaidi was the shaman of the sami people, which were believed to be healers and protecters and could make contacts with the spirit world.
The Noaidi used a shaman drum to communicate with the spirit world
The sami believed that every thing had a soul
A sami offering site is called a Siedi
The handicraft of the Sami is known as Duodji and its origins are speculated to have come about the same time as Sami nomadism began well before the 15th century.
Sami Wooden Calendar
117 C.E - Cornelius Tacitus a roman historian provides the earliest written material about the Sami.
16th and 17th centuries: Missionaries from both the Russian Orthodox and the Scandinavian protestant churches active in the Sami settlement area.
17th century- During this period reindeer herding started
10,000 B.C.E. (approx.) - The ice from the last Ice Age recedes in Scandinavia.
9,800 B.C.E - The first evidence of a settlement are discovered in modern Arjeplog, Sweden.
8,000 B.C.E. - The first human habitants to appear in Finno-Scandinavia are the Fosna Culture.
6,000 B.C.E - The Komsa Stone Age Culture, believed to be the ancestors of the Sami appear in the vicinity of the Komsa Mountain.
4200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. - Hunting-fishing culture creates rock art at Atla and Komsa (Finnmark).
2000-2500 B.C.E - Proto-Samic language (Uralic) develops in South Finland and Karelia.
100 C.E. - Sami make contact with Indo-European peoples.
550 A.D. - Byzantine historian Prokopious calls the sami, “Skrid Finns” which means hunters clad in skins and details them skiing.
1,100 C.E. - Earliest description of Sami shamanism and drums is written in Historia Norwegiae, the latin history of Norway.
1,200 C.E. - Snorri Sturluson, a famous Icelandic poet mentions the Sami in his sagas.
1,349 C.E. - Bubonic plague hits Norway. The Sami, not connected to European trade routes, do not suffer so many deaths.
Rock Art at Atla
Sami traditionally wore reindeer skin clothing before the 1500s. Even though a similar garb is worn by the Sami sometimes today, the fabric is cotton.
Many of the crafted items were tools that could be transported easily to suit a nomadic life-style.
Bowls and Harnesses
Textiles and Clothing
The materials used to make these items were wood as well as reindeer leather, bone, and horns.
Accuracy of Samic clothing is uncertain because of knock-off traditional dress worn for exhibitional purposes. However, the elements of the collar, headwear, and jewellery were pre-dominant in the 15th century as it was inspired by the aristocratic dress of Sweden.
was made a festive trade-wear by the 18th century
Scree burials were the most common sami from of burial.
The dead were laid in a rocky scree, beneath a boulder, or in a crevice or cave.
Arrows, tools, jewellry, animal bones and shells were taken into the grave.
"Once, when Christians who had come to trade had sat down at table with some Finns, their hostess fell forward all of a sudden and expired...Then a magician, spreading out a cloth under which he might prepare himself for intoning unholy sorcerers spells, raised aloft in his outstretched hands a small vessel similar to a riddle, decorated with tiny figures of whales, harnessed reindeer, skis, and even a miniature boat with oars; using these means of transport the demonic spirit was able to travel across tall snowdrifts, mountain-sides and deep lakes. After chanting incantations for a very long time and leaping about there with this paraphernalia, he finally threw himself on the ground...ripped across his stomach, with a mighty roar he eventually relinquished his life. Next they consulted another specialist in the magic arts as to what had happened in each case. This individual went through all his practices in similar fashion, though with a different outcome: the hostess arose in sound health and then he revealed to them that the sorcerer had died in the following way: his gand, having taken on the likeness of a whale, was shooting rapidly through a lake when it had the misfortune to encounter a hostile gand, which had transformed itself into sharply pointed stakes; these stakes, hidden in the depths of the lake, penetrated the repulsed creature's belly, and this was also manifested by the death of the magician in the house."
The first description of a Sami healing ritual by a 12th century Norwegian monk in Historia Norwegiae
Sami burial mound (Scree)
Healers or shamans were known as Noaidi.
"During the visit I was ‘diagnosed’ by Nanna. This took place while I sat at her kitchen table with the
others present. She ‘looked’ directly into my eyes for a period of twenty minutes. During this time she did not speak or move. After these twenty minutes, which I found difficult to endure, she told what she had ‘seen’. Her ‘diagnosis’ was striking in its correctness."
The sami had rituals involved with the bear hunting,they had ancient beliefs that the bear was endowed with supernatural qualities.
once the bear had been eaten, its bones should be collected and buried.They are often found in scree or rocks and therefore resemble scree burials. Just as with people, the bear could be provided with burial gifts
The Sami are an indigenous People of northernmost Europe.
They inhabited areas of present Sweden, Finland, Norway and Russia
They are historically a dispersed and culturally divided people
They have also been known by other terms such as Finn and Lapp.
The indigenous word for the area of sami settlement is Sapmi.
Bear grave ritual
A 1993 case study was done on Sami healers
uses a drum called a
during healing rites
Schefferus wrote in
had the capacity to: "
deflect what is evil or hurtful
" and "
inherited spirits that protected them
Rites sometimes included
a form of song that can call upon the dead for instructions.
A major aspect of Sami culture was reindeer domestication. The animal served as a means of transportation, a raw material for manufacturing various utensils and a provider of food. Reindeer pelts were used for making furs, winter boots, tanned shoes for summer, hats, bags, mittens, shirts, trousers and gaiters. Sewing thread was made by twisting reindeer tendons. Pelts were used as mattresses and bed covers and for upholstering babies' cradles. Antlers became knife handles. Reindeer milk was partly preserved with herbs for winter consumption, another fraction being used for making cheeses.
The oldest bear burial which has been dated is from the period 220-325 AD.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Norwegian kings called
exploited the Sami by imposing a tax named
. The Sami were required to pay tribute with reindeer furs and eider-down (fine duck feathers). However, in some instances, the Sami were repaid in grain and iron tools.
Bear Burial Site
The joik is a unique form of cultural expression for the Sami people
In the early Viking Age, there was trade between Sami and Vikings. The Sami were highly respected as tradesmen. This contact eventually provided the Sami with their own monetary system.
The Sami are divided into five regional groups: Coastal Sami, Forest Samis, Mountain Sami, River Sami, and Skolt and Kola Sami.
The sami demonstrate matriarchal values as there was a reliance on women to be caretakers as well as make clothing to survive harsh winter climates.
The Sami are known to have constructed and used sail boats since 1,000 C.E.
The Sami method for recording time uses a wooden calendar which was written in the runic alphabet and depicts natural phenomena.
Old Walking Sticks
Engravings found on Sami boats
The Sami were skiiers since the birth of their culture
The sami believed that the bear was ìsaivoî (sacred)