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Transcript of OLD TESTAMENT
Nahum is short for Nehemiah meaning "Comfort, Consolation"
100 years after Jonah preached and Nineveh worshiped the true God, Nineveh is now in complete rebellion against God.
Assyria is the strongest empire in the world, and Nineveh (capital city of Assyria) has chosen its strength and might in place of the One True God.
Unlike Jonah, Nahum does not go to Nineveh but speaks his oracle from afar.
There is no hope for repentance this second time! Nineveh's destruction is decreed (Ch. 1), described (Ch2),
deserved (Ch. 3).
Zephaniah from the Hebrew Tsephan-ya meaning "YHWH Hides" or "YHWH has hidden."
His name may mean that he was hidden from the evil king of Manasseh's attrocities.
Zeph 1:1 shows he is the great-great-grandson of the godly king Hezekiah and would be the only prophet of royal descent.
Zeph 1:4 refers to Jerusalem as "this place" showing familiarity with the godly Land.
Overview of book: Zephaniah is a fierce grim book about the coming day of the Lord. Desolation, darkness, and ruin will strike Judah because of God's wrath against sin.
However, a time of joy will follow when God cleanses the nation and restores relationship with all the Israelite people!
Theme: God is concerned for Gentiles as well as His covenant people of Israel.
Purpose: to encourage obedience in God's followers and to let the world know that God loves Gentiles as much as Jews.
Read the book of Jonah and answer the following questions:
1. Where did God call Jonah to go and where did Jonah set out to go?
2. Why did Jonah get thrown onto the sea? Describe the scene.
3. How long was Jonah in the belly of the fish? Why do people think it was a whale? Do you think it was a whale or a fish? Explain your reasons.
4. What did Jonah do in the belly of the fish? Describe.
5. What was God's second message to Jonah and how did Jonah respond this time?
6. What did Jonah tell Nineveh? How did Nineveh respond?
7. How did Jonah respond to Nineveh's response to Jonah's message to them?
8. How did God respond to Jonah in regards to a plant? What was God's message to Jonah about Nineveh regarding the plant?
Author: Amos means "to lift a burden, to carry"
Amos' prophecy occurs during a time of national optimism!
Business is booming but below the surface, greed and injustice are festering! Hypocrisy replaced true worship!
Hypocrisy: A once slaved people are now exploiting others for financial gain. God is not pleased by this behavior!!!
People will not turn to God:
Famine, drought, plagues, death and destruction - nothing can force God's people to their knees.
Hosea's name means "Salvation"
- ministry to the northern Kingdom of Israel called Ephraim after the largest tribe
Habakkuk - name derived from Hebrew habaq meaning "embrace"
Habakkuk is one who embraces or clings to God no matter what happens to his nation.
Habakkuk is a prophet to Judah who is suffering because of stubborn rebellion against God.
Author: "Micah" whose name means "Who is a God like thee?"
Micah is a prophet to the downtrodden, exploited people of the Judean society.
He prophesies during a time of great social injustice and boldly opposes those who impose their power upon the poor and the weak for selfish ends.
Corrupt rulers, false prophets, and ungodly priests become a target for Micah's prophecy!
The pollution of sin has permeated every level of society.
Purpose: Emphasis on the relationship between spirituality and social ethics.
How does what you believe impact your view on social issues?
- the shortest book of the Old Testament
- one chapter with only 21 verses
Theme: the shortest book of the Bible with the strongest message of God's judgment.
Purpose: To inform everyone that God's judgment will eventually prevail over all nations. Edom is an example of God's dealing with a small portion, but He will eventually judge and set restoration for ALL of Humanity.
If God is love, how could He hate any person?
Author: Joel whose name means "Yahweh is God."
Theme: Repentance because God's judgment is coming!
Purpose: Warning to Judah (Southern Kingdom) to repent and return to God before a worse judgement comes!
Summary: Disaster strikes the southern kingdom via the destruction of locusts. In the midst of total physical devastation, Joel focuses on a worse judgment coming for those who do not repent: a spiritual judgment!
Joel offers warning and great hope!
"And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the Lord will be delivered!" - Joel 2:32
Message: God is sovereign over nature and nations and often uses nature to get man's attention to repent and serve him!
BOOKS OF MINOR PROPHETS
Note: Hosea, Joshua, Jesus are derived from same Hebrew word.
Theme: In the midst of material prosperity was spiritual famine in God's people through which God's love still endures.
Purpose: To exhort God's people with the message that God hates sin, judgment is certain, but God's love remains firm.
Story: Hosea's wife was a cheating prostitute, like Israel was cheating in idolatry! What similarities do you see between a Christian and God and a husband and wife? In what ways do Christians cheat on God today? Does understanding sin in the context of relationship make a difference to you?
"Rules without Relationship leads to Rebellion!"
Amos' message of coming doom on the northern kingdom of Israel is poorly received and even mocked!
How can Christians best communicate the reality of judgment and Hell in our world today?
Edom is somehow connected to Esau... How?
Read Malachi 1:3 and Romans 9:13
"Jacob I loved, Esau I hated" - Why did God hate Esau?
Why such a harsh judgment against Edom in Obadiah?
1. Read the book of Habakkuk
2. Identify the answers to the following questions that outline the book:
a. What is the first problem Habakkuk faces? (1:1-4)
b. What is God's first reply? (1:5-11)
c. What is the second problem Habakkuk faces? (1:12-2:1)
d. What is God's second reply? (2:2-20)
e. What is Habakkuk's prayer/ praise to God? (3:1-15)
f. At the end of the book, does Habbakuk truly follow God or reject God?
Malachi- Hebrew mal'aki meaning "My Messenger" or Mal'ak-ya meaning "Messenger of YHWH."
Theme: An appeal through the frustrating times of Israel as they are disillusioned and doubtful about the fulfillment of certain prophecies.
Purpose: Although times of following God become discouraging, believers must be encouraged to remain faithful.
Sin abounds as the Old Testament comes to a close and 400 silent years before John the Baptist begins preaching!
The sins addressed in Malachi:
hypocrisy, infidelity, mixed marriages, divorce, stealing by not tithing, false worship, and arrogance!
What is the last word of the Old Testament? Malachi 4:6
Contrast the last phrase of the New Testament!
Haggai's name derived from Hebrew hag meaning festival.
hag-giah - "Festival of the Lord
Perhaps haggai got his name after being born on a Jewish Festival Day?
Haggai's second message takes place during a feast (2:1)
Survey: Haggai is concerned because the people are more interested in their own houses than in working on the Temple of God.
1. The completion of the latter Temple (1:1-15)
2. The glory of the latter Temple (2:1-9)
3. The present blessing of obedience (2:10-19)
4. The future blessings of promise (2:20-23)
Zechariah: "God remembers"
For a dozen years or more, the task of rebuilding the Temple has been half complete.
Rather than threatening the people to finish, Zechariah encourages the people by reminding them of the future importance of the Temple.
The focus and hope of the coming Messiah motivates people to finish the job! How does Jesus give you hope?
Outline of Zechariah:
1. Eight visions (Ch.1-6)
2. Four messages (Ch.7-8)
3. Two burdens (Ch.9-14)