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Transcript of Direct Method
ASSESSMENT LIMITS OF GTM inability to create
communicative competence DM Far from GTM Oral communication
spontaneous use of L2
Ability to think in L2 L1 for instructions
Translation SO, teachers began to teach FL as L1 acquisition Key Features 1. Classroom conducted in the target language.
2. Key Features - Classroom in the target language
- Oral communication skills are built up in progression
- Grammar is taught inductively
- Concrete vocabulary Objects /Pictures
- Abstract vocabulary Association of ideas
- Both speech and listening comprehension are taught
- Correct pronunciation and grammar PUBLIC
SCHOOLS Do you think DM worked the same way at... Typical Techniques - Reading aloud
- Student self-correction
- Conversation practice
- Fill-in-the-blank exercises NEW SCHOOL OF THINKING To speak languages was a need GTM vs DM L1
Memorizing grammar rules
Grammar and spelling L2
Grammar taught by induction
Pronunciation and grammar Comenius had revolutionary ideas System TO ALL:
from nursery to university His ideas, precursors of DM Learn L2 through L2, not L1 Vocabulary Objects Words -Linking meaning- ? PRIVATE
SCHOOLS in the 20th
Students were very motivated
as they didn't have to travel far
to try it and apply it communicatively very popular DM Private schools Public schools DM 1 of the foundations of:
AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD GTM Guaranteed + in the
scholastic L2 learning
reading & grammar skills ADAPTATION A Direct Method Chinese Class ? Direct Method
Advantages and Disadvantages learn by hearing
think in target
(compared to GTM)
learn by self-correction
based on real-life topics
and useful vocab
ideal if students' need is speaking / listening
interactive activities and games = more fun small class sizes
grammatical accuracy or reading skills?
meaning of elements of language
perspective of learner? Direct Method
Advantages and Disadvantages Solutions? Partner Teachers:
Native (NET) with local (NNET) Benefits of native teacher:
. sociocultural aspects of language use.
. natural, fluent use of language; no 'foreign' accent.
Benefits of local teacher:
. has learnt L2 themselves; living proof!
. aware of specific L1-L2 problems
. aware of learners' cultural background Problems... Native teacher: (DM)
. no local knowledge
. possibly little or no teaching experience:
Cannot explain grammar:
"capable of identifying ill-formed grammatical expressions ... (but) may not be able to explain exactly why they are ill-formed
Local teacher: (GTM or A-LM)
. 'foreign' accent
. problems associated with GTM Conclusion of NET and NNET co-teaching (according to article):
"The shortcomings of one are covered by the
other, and vice versa".
Mix of styles confuses students.
Stereotypes according to nationality. Conclusions DM can work for some people, but it ignores the need to read or write accurately.
The requirements for the method are so great that only private schools can really use it successfully.
Easy method for untrained NET who don't have the skills or knowledge to teach grammar effectively. However... Native teacher (DM)
Little or no local cultural knowledge
Little or no knowledge of L1
Little of no teaching experience.
Local teacher (GTM / ALM)
Problems associated with GTM
Very different styles of teaching The 'holistic' approach can greatly benefit students:
NETs: correct use of grammar and particular uses of English. NNETs: understand the learners’ needs and difficulties more.
Can provide efficient instruction to the diverse range of students, through using the different teaching styles.
If NET and NNET work together as an effective team, it CAN be a very successful solution. NNET needs to support/train inexperienced NET. Initially NET is assistant, but later can gain more responsibility. Bibliography Agustin. The Direct Method. (Article).
Clavel-Arroitia, Begoña. 2012. Second Language Acquisition and Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Valencia: PUV.
Liu, Liwei. 2012. Co-teaching between native and non-native English teachers: An exploration of co-teaching models and strategies in the Chinese primary school context. Yunnan Nationalities University.