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Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignment, c. 190
Transcript of Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignment, c. 190
By: Halle Pettitt
How did science affect humans’ conception of the
natural world in the 20th century?
Rapid advances in science altered understandings of the universe and the
natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes
enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans
interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at
local, regional and global levels.
Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world,
assisted by the development of new technology. New modes of communication
and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance. New
scientific paradigms transformed human understandings of the world. (such the
theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Big Bang theory or psychology) The
Green Revolution produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread
chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture. Medical innovations
(such as the polio vaccine, antibiotics, and the artificial heart) increased the
ability of humans to survive. Energy technologies including the use of oil and
nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material
-What new scientific technologies developed in
the 20th century?
-What new technologies and discoveries
affected communication, transportation, and
conceptions of the world?
-How did scientific discoveries affect
humans’ ability to feed and care for
-What new energy technologies affected
the 20th century?
How did humans’ relationship to the
environment change in the 20th century?
As the global population expanded at an unprecedented rate, humans
fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment. Humans
exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than
ever before in human history.
What negative consequences in the
20th century accompanied the benefits of
Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases
and other pollutants into the atmosphere. Pollution threatened the world’s
supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continued
consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of
other species accelerated sharply.
Why did older, land-based empires decline
The older land-based Ottoman, Russian or the Qing empires collapsed due
to a combination of internal and external factors. (such as economic hardship,
political and social discontent, technological stagnation or military defeat)
-What ideologies were often used to
-How were colonial peoples affected by the
change of old colonial boundaries?
- How were relationships between imperial
powers and former colonies maintained after
the end of those empires?
The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements. (such
as the Indian/Pakistan partition, the Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine or
the division of the Middle East into mandatory states) The migration of former
colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (such as South Asians to Britain,
Algerians to France or Filipinos to United States) maintained cultural and
economic ties between colony and metropole even after the dissolution of
What circumstances contributed to
genocide and mass refugee populations?
The proliferation of conflicts led to various forms of ethnic violence (such as
Armenia, the Holocaust, Cambodia and Rwanda) and the displacement of
people resulting in refugee populations. (such as Palestinians or Darfurians)
How did the World Wars affect the nature
of war and the relationship of the government to
The varied sources of global conflict in the first half of the century included:
imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition for
resources, ethnic conflict, great power rivalries between Great Britain and
Germany, nationalist ideologies and the economic crisis engendered by the
What ideologies motivated the World
The First and Second World Wars were the first “total wars.” Governments
used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize
all of their state’s resources, including peoples and resources both in the home
countries and the colonies or former colonies. (such as the Gurkha soldiers in
India or the ANZAC troops in Australia) Governments also used a variety of
strategies to mobilize these populations, including political speeches, art, media
and intensified forms of nationalism
How did the world’s balance of power
change during the Cold War?
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of the
Second World War and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States
and Soviet Union emerged as superpowers which led to ideological struggles
between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
What were the Cold War’s military
The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw
Pact and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
What caused the Cold War to end?
The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.
Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century
(such as Picasso’s Guernica, the anti-nuclear movement during the
Cold War or Thich Quang Duc’s self-immolation) and some
promoted the practice of nonviolence (such as Tolstoy, Gandhi or
Martin Luther King) as a way to bring about political change.
What alternatives were
offered to the economic,
political, and social status
Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the
existing economic, political and social orders (such as the nonaligned
movement which presented an alternative political bloc to
the Cold War, the Tiananmen Square protests that promoted
democracy in China, the Anti-Apartheid Movement or the global
uprisings of 1968)
Why did some movements
use terrorism for political
More movements used violence against civilians to achieve
political aims. (such as the IRA, ETA, and Al-Qaeda)
How did the anti-war and
respond to the century’s
How was popular culture
affected by the global
Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture. (such
as Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism or video games)
-What new governmental
institutions emerged as a
result of the 20th century
-What made these new
-What role did they play in
the world during the 20th
The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse
of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the
role of the state in the domestic economy fluctuated new institutions of
global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the
century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of
integration, changing relationship between humans and the environment
and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments
in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and
historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested
themselves in and were reinforced by new forms of cultural production.
Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social
How did new international
organizations affect the
relationship of states and
peoples around the world?
New international organizations (such as the League of Nations or
the United Nations) formed to maintain world peace and to
facilitate international cooperation.
-What were the economic
effects of new international
-New economic institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank or
WTO) sought to spread the principles and practices associated
with free market economics throughout the world.
-Humanitarian organizations (such as UNICEF, the Red Cross,
Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders or the WHO)
developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
How did these economic
developments affect the
distribution of world
Multi-national corporations (such as Royal-Dutch Shell, Coca-
Cola or Sony) began to challenge state authority and autonomy.
Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of
environmental and economic consequences of global integration.
-How did communities of
faith respond to the rapid
changes in the 20th century?
-How did the global nature
of culture affect sports,
music, fashions, and the
-Believers developed new forms of spirituality (such as New Age
Religions, Hare Krishna or Falun Gong) and chose to emphasize
particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them
to political issues (such as fundamentalist movements and
-Sport was more widely practiced and reflected national and social
aspirations. (such as World Cup soccer, the Olympics or cricket)
Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled
the widespread diffusion of music and film. (such as reggae or