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jennifer De Vera

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of Counseling

CHAPTER VIII Generic goals Counseling Goals COUNSELING Is a heart of the guidance program.
It is the counseling service that integrates
all the data gathered about the individual and
his/ her environment, in order for them
to make sense. Nature and purpose Counseling is a goal oriented relationship between a professionally trained, competent counselor and an individual seeking help for the purpose of bringing about a meaningful awareness and understanding of the self and environment, improving planning and decision making, and formulating new ways of behaving, feeling, and thinking for problem resolution and/ or development growth Depending upon the stage at which
an individual is encountered Human
Dimensional Development goals When clients are assisted in preparing for their anticipated human growth and development in the physical,personal,emotional.social,cognitive and spiritual dimension, goal of counseling may be develop in nature.
When clients are encountered at the time they are not experiencing any problem but are helped to avoid experiencing undesired outcomes, the goal may be preventive. Preventive goals Enhancement goals When clients’ encountered need is to helped to identify, recognize and enhance unused
or underused talents, skills and abilities,
the goal maybe enhancement. Exploratory goals When clients do not believe they have an existing problem but can benefit from examining options, testing skills, and trying new and different activities, environments, relationships, and so on, they can be
helped to explore other pathways. Reinforcement goals When clients are already taking action for resolving their concerns or already have a planned course of action when they come for counseling, the goal would be to help them to recognize that what they are doing, thinking and/or feeling may be okay or may need some fine-tuning. Remedial goals Goals whereby clients are assisted to overcome or solve an already existing concern Seem to refer to the various
dimensions of a human being
that must be addressed. Cognitive goals Refer to the development of the intellect,
and this is a concern mainly in school. Psychological goals Refer to the development of good intra
and interpersonal skills:
social/ interaction skills,
emotional control, self-esteem. Physiological goals Goals whereby clients are helped to
develop the basic understanding and
habits for good health, such as those
done by fitness and diet counselor. Spiritual goals helping individuals focus on internal processes within them which have to do
with wholeness and inner peace constitutes the spiritual goals, whether this includes the relationship with God or not. Types of Counseling
According to Areas
Covered Academic/
Educational This type of counseling focuses mainly on school or academic concerns: school selection;school entry; school adjustment; and school maintenance. The target is usually to locate the student in the proper academic setting and to enable him/her to get the highest possible passing grades in the subjects or courses that he/she is enrolled in. Vocational/
Career This type of counseling focuses mainly
on the selection of or the proper preparation for the world of work. Decisions on whether to pursue a degree or non-degree course, field of concentration for college and /or after college, and the appropriate school for a selected program of study are usually the main targets especially in the latter part of a high school, since they relate to the kind of work or career that is being prepared for. Personal/ Social This type of counseling can be
extended to anyone at any age and
usually focuses on the interpersonal and intrapersonal growth of a person.
It can be preventive, Developmental and remedial. Diet Counseling is considered the work of the dietitian
or the nutritionist, school and
psychological counselors may find themselves doing some of it.
Diet counseling has always been
associated with weight loss and the
handling of ailments like high blood
pressure, Diabetes, Arthritis, and Heart disease. Crisis
Counseling is usually thought of as a stress so severe that the individual becomes disorganized and dysfunctional. Cycles of increasing tension and anxiety and ineffective coping occur because of the inability to think clearly, Plan decisively, and act responsibly.Crisiscounseling usually takes no more than three months, although for most counselors in Philippine Schools, This is much and too long. Crisis often falls
into two
Major categories: (1.) Developmental Crisis
(2.) Situational Crisis. Crisis Situation: (1.) Individual Crisis;
(2.) Familial Crisis;
(3.) Community Crisis Grief
Counseling loss is something that everyone experiences—whatever age, gender, educational background, socio-economic level. Loss can come in many forms—loss of significant others, animals, prestige,a job, etc.Loss, however, is experienced differently by different people, depending upon the meaning attached to whatever has been lost. Pastoral
Counseling Not every counselor is qualified to conduct pastoral counseling since it combines religion and spirituality with secular counseling to promote health and wholeness.Generally, priests and pastors conduct Pastoral Counseling. Leisure
Counseling is considered as discretionary time and is defined as free or unobligated time.Leisure activities are freely chosen non-work activities where one’s participation is not required and where there is no expectation of extrinsic rewards, such as money or praise. Addiction
Counseling 1. the kind of leisure
activities that are
suitable for the
individual 2. When and/or how
long one must engage
in leisure activities Substance
Abuse Alcohol and nicotine are
beginning to be recognized as
addictive, especially among the
educated class. Caffein addiction is acknowledge by a few.Because
people are becoming aware of
addiction to various substances,
the term substance abuse is
beginning to be more often
associated with substances
other than drugs.Addiction works usuallyfocused on
drugs or alcohol. Cyber
Addiction is the addiction to virtual realms
of experience created through
computer engineering
( the internet, on-line games,
virtual-reality games) Addiction to
on-line relationships 1. Cybersexual
2. Cyber-relationship
Addiction Addiction to
on-line facets 1. Net compulsions
2. Information overload
3. Computer addiction Addiction to
the Addicted Codependent find their satisfaction in taking care of the addict and are considered co-addicts. A codependent is usually the partner or spouse or family member who resents the addict, but at the same time devotes time and energy in the care of the latter, thus enabling him/her to continue to engage in the behavior. Type of
according to
Participants Individual
counseling is an interaction
two people
the client and
the counselor. 1. routine interviews whereby counselors ensure that each student is called to determine whether there are concerns that must be explored or to interpret test results. From such interviews, the skillful and dedicated counselor is able to segue into actual counseling, whether for preventive,developmental, or remedial purposes. 2. a counselor’s discovery from others or from collected information that someone needs assistance but is not seeking it. He/she may call the person for a private discussion to motivate him/her to seek counseling since imposing counseling is not ethically acceptable. 3. referrals done by a significant other---teacher, parent, spouse,etc.—who has done everything to help the person to no avail. 4. voluntary counseling where an individual notices something about himself/herself which he/she cannot understand, accept, or handle and which seems to be beyond his/her ability to deal with. Help from others seems to be too limited or too embarrassing to solicit. Group
Counseling this is counseling extended to
several people with similar concerns
and desired common goals.
Examples of these concerns are positive behavioral changes, improved social or interpersonal skills, development of appropriate values and attitudes, extentensive and relevant career
planning and decision-making,
elimination of self-defeating
behaviors. Multiple
Counseling More than one counselor handles an individual, a couple or a group.this way:1. the concern can be seen from different angles perspectives which make for comprehensive handling.2. more options may be generated by more people looking into the problem and its resolution.3. for couple counseling having a male and a female counselor may prevent the client from thinking that the counselor and his/her partner are ganging up on him/her, just because they are of the same gender. 4. for couple or group or family counseling, one counselor can be alert to the signals presented by the other members of the counseling relationship while the other counselor is busy processing one or the other member. Couple
Counseling In the past, this was called
marital counseling. Counseling
is usually extended only
when spouses are experiencing
difficulties in the relationship.
Usually the partners are
invited to discuss their
relationship difficulties
and discover ways and
means by which issues
might be resolve. Family
Counseling Is seen by the Systems Theorist as a must for anyone who is experiencing difficulty, since it is believe that the family impacts on the individual who is considered as having the difficulty and likewise, the individual and his/her problems impact on the family.
Family is more effective when there is an opportunity to observe reactions of different family members while one of them is engaged in an active interaction with one or the other counselor. Counseling
Approaches Clinical or
Counseling Eclectic
Counseling Client-Centered Counseling The underlying premise of this approach is that human beings have potential for both good and evil and if not properly guided, the person could choose evil. Counseling aims at enabling the individual to arrive at enlightened self-understanding and self-direction through appropriate problem-solving. The counselor helps the clients develop their full potentials while balancing respect for client’s right to decide on their own life goals and adherence to certain values and goals that would meet
the needs of society. Behavior
Modification Reality
Therapy Rational-Emotive
Therapy Gestalt
Counseling Transactional
Analysis Neurolinguistic Programming Brief
Therapy Solution- Focused
Therapy Cognitive
Therapy The
Process Solution
Termination Problem
Exploration Relationship
Building Planning
Problem Solving Counseling
Skills Articulation
Skills Observation
Skills Nonverbal
Communication Verbal
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