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Goh Zhen Hao 12091351D
Wu Yi Hsuan 12130074D
Wijaya Andre Johan 12129998d Cognitive Competence #When you see a yellow sign in the street…
#What will you infer? Imagine…… An ability
#Manipulate and strategize information
#Make sense of surroundings
(Vygotsky, 1978) Definition – Cognitive Competence (Sun and Hui, 2006) Cognitive Competence Critical thinking #Reasoning
making sense of things
(Halpern, 1999; Sun and Hui, 2006) Critical thinking Inferences When You Infer,
#you go beyond the author’s words to understand what is not said in the text Simply Speaking…… Inference process To make inference and deduction from the information collected
#For doing a rational evaluation and
#Making a reasonable decision
(Ennis, 1996) Critical thinking Critical Thinking Model According to Gerras (2011), Critical thinking model Example: Driving to a familiar destination. 1 ─ Usually, we tend to have "automatic" mode of cognitive thought in daily lives. Two highlights of the model 2 ─ Model appears to be nonlinear. Two highlights of the theory # It is not your personal viewpoints only, rather it should be a variety of points of views.
# Be aware of and recognize personal points of views which may bias our thinking. Point of view # An inference is an intellectual act in which we conclude something based on the facts and evidence of a situation. Inferences # It is usually taken for granted.
# Be aware of the beliefs we hold to be true, which have been formed from what we have previously learned and no longer question. Assumptions # Analyze the root causes of the problem
# Identify related and subsequent issues The first step: Clarify Concern # Argument analysis
# Impacts of the bias The second step: Evaluate Information # Understand the short-term consequences of accepting initial inferences or resisting opposing perspectives.
# Appreciate the long-term consequences of the information they accept and the decisions they make. The third step: Implications Importance Of Critical Thinking Richard Paul’s Study (Paul, 1993)
Method: Observing the improvement of 12th grade students composition skills before and after the focused critical thinking training
Criteria to be assessed:
-Clarity Of Writing
-Analysis Author Arguments
-Using supporting Information
-Grammar Importance Of Critical Thinking Richard Paul’s Study (Paul, 1993)
Method: Separate 38 students into four groups (native & non native)
(High, Midrange, Lower, English language learner) Importance Of Critical Thinking Richard Paul’s Study (Paul, 1993)
Before the training Importance Of Critical Thinking Richard Paul’s Study (Paul, 1993)
After the training (1st assignment) Importance Of Critical Thinking Richard Paul’s Study
After the training (4th assignment) Importance Of Critical Thinking 1. Richard Paul’s Study (Paul, 1993)
Discussion: Critical Thinking DOES NOT relate to how smart you are
clearer, deeper understanding, and well organized. Importance Of Critical Thinking PATHS project
(Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies)
Method: # give their students critical thinking training
# Comparing children with PATHS curriculum with others
Objectives: #teach Social problem solving skills
#Improve cognitive abilities when solving complex problem
(Greenberg et al., 1995) Importance Of Critical Thinking PATHS project (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies)
Results: Decrease self-report on depressive symptoms Importance Of Critical Thinking PATHS project (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies)
Results : Decrease problem behavior Importance Of Critical Thinking PATHS project (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies)
Discussion : # Tend to be organized (mentioned before)
# helps to understand emotion, self control, and tolerate frustration. Importance Of Critical Thinking Reflection
“A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.”
John C. Maxwell
1947 - present Ways of Promote cognitive competence Reference THE END So Critical Thinking. . .
- Self-Regulatory (Phan, 2009)
@ high Academic Performance (Lun et al., 2010)
@ Healthier life (Rindner, 2004)
Needed to be a good leader! Implications Relation between the study and model Take our group presentation for example… Take Nelson Mandela for example… (The Critical Thinking Community, 2011) Atmosphere
Use sources related to our senses.
@ Detective novels
@ Critical thinking games
@ Films and TV series Make Inferences
Evaluate Information Video watching (Galotti ,1995;Walker, 2003) Discussion and Debate
Form a group and share your opinions on a certain topic.
@ Decide a controversial issue;
@ Find pros and cons;
@ Observe the reasoning skills of other people. @ Updated news
@ Seek the pros and cons
@ Debate with peers or on the wall
@ Read the opinions Consider points of View
Evaluate Information Example: Democracy Forum (Walker, 2003) Questioning
Ask yourselves questions based on the knowledge you have learned.
@ What is the best and why...
@ What is the consequence.…
Question the authority. Native Non-Native Example: The Malaysia Election Baer J. (2003). Evaluative thinking, creativity, and task specificity: separating wheat from chaff is not the same as findings needles in haystacks. In: Runco MA, editor. Critical Creative Processes. Cresskill, NJ, USA: Hampton Press. pp. 129–151.
Ennis RH. (1999). Critical Thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall; 1996
Halpern DF. Teaching for critical thinking: helping college students develop the skills and dispositions of a critical thinker. New Directions for Teaching and Learning.(80):69–74.
Flage DE. (2004). The Art of Questioning: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. New Jersey, NJ, USA: Pearson.
Galotti, K. M. (1995) Reasoning about reasoning: a course project. Journal of Teaching of Psychology Journal, 22, 66–68. References Gerras, S. (2011). Critical thinking and judgment:The key to effective leadership., 1.
Lun VMC, Fischer R, Ward C. Exploring cultural differences in critical thinking: is it about my thinking style or the language i speak? Learning and Individual Differences. 2010;20(6):604–616.
Maxwell, J.C. Retrieved May 8th from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/j/johncmaxw383606.html
Sternberg RJ. (1988). Mental self-government: a theory of intellectual styles and their development. Human Development.31:197–224.
Sun RCF, Hui EKP. (2006). Cognitive competence as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health.18(3):401–408.
The Critical Thinking Community. (2011). Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-in-everyday-life-9-strategies/512
Vygotsky LS. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Process. Cambridge, Mass, USA: Harvard University Press.
Walker, S. E. (2003). Active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Journal of Athletic Training, 38(3), 263. References Paul RW. (1993). The logic of creative and critical thinking. American Behavioral Scientist.37(1):21–39.
Phan HP. Relations between goals, self-efficacy, critical thinking and deep processing strategies: a path analysis. Educational Psychology. 2009;29(7):777–799.
Rindner EC. Using freirean empowerment for health education with adolescents in primary, secondary, and tertiary psychiatric settings. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 2004;17(2):78–84.