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Copy of BIO101 - Medical Assisting Anatomy and Physiology

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Dr. Candace Smith

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of BIO101 - Medical Assisting Anatomy and Physiology

Dr. Candace Smith Anatomy and Physiology I
The World of Biology photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Orbital cavity = eyes, eye muscles, optic nerves, tear ducts
Nasal cavity = nose
Buccal cavity = teeth and tongue Smaller Cavities iliac iliac
Anterior or ventral = front of body
Posterior or dorsal = back of body
Cranial and caudal = head
Superior and inferior = upper and lower
Medial and lateral = toward the midline and away from the midline
Proximal and distal = towards point of attachment or trunk; and away from trunk
Superficial or external = on or near the surface
Deep or internal = involving internal organs Location & Position Figuring out meanings
Medical dictionary
Look-alike and sound-alike word parts Much, much more…… Added to beginning of a word root or combining form to influence the meaning
Usually, but not always, indicate location, time or number
Postnatal Prefixes Change the root word to an adjective
Cardiac ‘pertaining to’
Change the root word to a noun
Indicate abnormal conditions
Describing a pathology
Describing a procedure
Double RR’s Suffixes Continued Added to end of a word root or combining form to complete the term
Usually, but not always, indicate the procedure, condition, disorder or disease.
Tonsillitis Tonsillectomy
Added to end of a word root or combining form Suffixes Word Roots (cardi)
Usually (but not always) describe body part involved
Cannot stand alone
May indicate color
Combining Forms (cardi/o)
Vowel may be needed between root and suffix Word Roots/Combining Forms Word Roots
Combining Forms
Prefixes Four types of word parts Open your books!
Word parts/Medical terms
Beginning of each chapter
Used to answer questions for that chapter
Not intended for memorization!
Audio library Introduction to Medical Terminology Anatomy - study of the shape & structure of body and relationship of one body part to another.
Physiology - study of the function of each body part
Pathophysiology – study of the disturbance of normal mechanical, physical or biochemical functions
Homeostasis - the maintenance of the internal environment within tolerable limits General Definitions
The Human Body Two major cavities
Dorsal - cranial cavity- brain
- spinal cavity- spinal cord
Ventral - thoracic cavity
Pericardial cavity
Pleural cavity
- abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity
Diaphragm Body Cavities Integumentary
Cardiovascular Covering
Nerves – rapid response
Lymph – transport system
Processes food
Urine secretions
Blood flow Systems and General Functions Right lumbar region
Left lumbar region
Lower or hypogastric region
Right iliac region (inguinal)
Left iliac region (inguinal) Upper or epigastric region
Right hypochondriac region
Left hypochondriac region
Middle or umbilical region Regions in the Abdominopelvic Cavity
(see page 5) Plane

Sagittal plane = right & left
Mid-sagittal plane = equal right & left
Coronal (frontal) plane = anterior & posterior
Transverse plane = superior & inferior Body Planes Pg 28 E and S Standing up
Facing forward
Holding arms at sides
Palms towards the front

Standard description of patient Anatomical Position Atoms
Basic unit of matter
A combination of atoms in chemical bonds
Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Fats
Tiny, membrane bound functional units of cells
the basic organizational unit of all living organisms
a group of cells that have similar structure and that function together as a unit
a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions
A group of physiologically or anatomically complementary organs or parts Levels of organization LLQ RLQ LUQ RUQ Quadrants in the Abdominopelvic Cavity
Fig 2.6 E. and S. -Terminology
-Regions and Position
-Systems The Human Body - an Introduction to Terminology and Position -Introduction to atoms, molcules, macromolecules
-Biochemistry - bonds, electron transfer
-Principles of diffusion, filtration
-pH and other topics Chemistry Think about when chemistry affects you
How can it affect your patients?
How can you use chemistry to make your life easier? Relevance Acids are substances that yield hydrogen ions in solution
Bases are substances that ionize into negatively charged hydroxide ions and positively charged ions of metal when dissolved in water
Salts are formed when acids and bases are combined ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS Nucleic acids are the largest known organic molecules; made from thousands of repeating subunits called nucleotides
There are two major types of nucleic acids:
RNA NUCLEIC ACIDS Proteins are among the most diverse and essential organic compounds found in all living things
Amino acids are the small units that make up protein molecules
Enzymes are specialized protein molecules that help control chemical reactions in a cell PROTEINS Lipids contain less oxygen than hydrogen
Examples of lipids:
Fats = glycerol & fatty acids
Phospholipids = contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and phosporus
Steroids = contain cholesterol LIPIDS Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates Inorganic Compounds
Made of molecules that do not contain carbon (C) ex. Water (H2O)
Organic Compounds (Macromolecules)
Always contain the element carbon (C)
4 Groups of organic compounds are:
Nucleic acids TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Ions are atoms that have unequal numbers of protons and electrons; creating either a positive or negative charge NaCl
Usually bound together to form a molecule
Electrolytes are parts of an ionic molecule that has broken apart Na+ Cl- IONS AND ELECTROLYTES Made up of 2 or more atoms
Organic compounds are compounds found in living things containing the element carbon
Molecules are the smallest units of compounds that retain its properties and remain stable COMPOUNDS Atoms that are alike combine to form elements
Compound made of only one type of atom
There are 92 elements found naturally and each is represented by a chemical symbol or abbreviation ELEMENTS The smallest unit of a compound that still has the properties of the compound and capability to lead its own stable and independent existence

Water compound can be broken into water molecules Molecule Covalent bonds
Formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons
Strongest chemical bond Bonds Ionic bonds
formed when there is a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another, resulting in two ions, one positively charged and the other negatively charged Bonds Isotopes are atoms of a specific element with the same number of protons but a different amount of neutrons
Radioactive Isotopes are unstable and may decay ATOMS Matter is anything that has weight and occupies space; it is neither created nor destroyed
Energy is the ability to do work or to put material into motion and exists in the body as:
Potential energy = stored in cells
Kinetic energy = work resulting in motion MATTER AND ENERGY CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS 1 1 pH measures acidity or alkalinity of a solution
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14
A pH between 0 and 6.9 is acidic
A pH between 7.1 and 14 is alkaline
A pH of 7.0 is neutral as it contains the same number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions PH SCALE m-RNA – Messenger RNA
Carries code for protein synthesis from DNA to ribosome
t-RNA – Transfer RNA
Transfers AA to ribosomes to form proteins
r-RNA – Ribosomal RNA
Communicates btx m-RNA and t-RNA RNA Function Ribonucleic acid
Single stranded
Phosphate group
Ribose sugar
Base Pairs
r-RNA RNA Structure Hydrogen bonds
formed when a charged part of a molecule having polar covalent bonds forms an electrostatic (charge, as in positive attracted to negative) interaction with a substance of opposite charge.
Weakest bond Bonds An atom is the smallest piece of an element
Atoms are made of subatomic particles
Protons have a positive charge
Neutrons have no charge
Electrons have a negative charge
Ions are atoms with a charge
Cation – positive charge
Anion – negative charge ATOMS Defined as the study of the structure of matter and the composition of substances, their properties, and their chemical reactions
Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions of living things CHEMISTRY Deoxyribonucleic acid
Phosphate group
Ribose sugar
Base Pairs
Function - Heredity DNA Structure and Function Trace Elements Major Elements Carbon C
Hydrogen H
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Phosphorous P
Sulfur S
Calcium Ca Sodium Na
Potassium K
Chlorine Cl
Iron Fe
Iodine I
Magnesium Mg Elements You Need to Know! Elements You Need to Know! Glycogen Sucrose, maltose, lactose Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose A long chain – Polysaccharides 2 simple – Disaccharides – Monosaccharides “Hydrates of carbon”
Cn(H2O)n simple sugars CarbOHydrates -Cellular Structure
-Cellular Metabolism
-Cell Specialization
-Cell Behavior
-Cell Division The Cell Tumors result when cell division is abnormal
Benign tumors are composed of cells confined to a local area
Malignant tumors continue to grow and crowd out healthy cells
Malignant tumors spread through the body by a process called metastasis DISORDERS OF
CELL STRUCTURE Specialized cells may lose the ability to perform some of the other life functions
Nerve and heart muscle cells cannot normally be replaced SPECIALIZATION Filtration - solutes move across a semi-permeable membrane from high pressure to lower pressure
Active transport - molecules move across membrane from low to high concentration MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES Isotonic – having the same number of sodium particles as plasma
Hypotonic – having less sodium particles than plasma (expands RBC’s)
Hypertonic – having more sodium particles than plasma (shrinks RBC’s) Terms Respiration

Glycogen is primary energy source
Comes from breakdown of ATP C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + (ATP + Heat) Respiration and Metabolism Cells divide for two purposes:
Meiosis is the division of the sex cell or gamete
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm in somatic cells
Telophase CELL DIVISION Is a membranous sac of digestive enzymes
Can digest all kinds of macromolecules
Digest wornout organelles and bacteria
Produced by the RER Lysosomes and Perioxisomes: Digestive Compartments Membrane system of tubules and sacs
Transports materials in and out of nucleus
Smooth vs Rough ER The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory Definition and functions
Structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction
The nucleus contains DNA (46 chromosomes) and protein arranged in a loose state called chromatin
Condenses to chromosomes when dividing
Surrounded by nuclear membrane
Separates nucleus from cytoplasm
Nucleolus/i contains ribosomes NUCLEUS Function - Separates the cell from its external environment and neighboring cells
Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane
The cell membrane regulates the transport of molecules into and out of the cell
Semi-permeable membrane
Structure - Composed of protein and lipid molecules CELL MEMBRANE CELLS 1 1 Osmosis is diffusion of water or other solvents through a semi-permeable membrane.
Type of diffusion MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES Chromatids migrate towards opposite poles
Daughter nuclei begin to form
Nuclear envelopes arise from fragments
Chromosomes become less condensed Telophase Nuclear envelope forming Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming TELOPHASE ANAPHASE Daughter chromosomes
The sister chromatids separate
The new chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
The cell elongates Anaphase Mitosis consists of five distinct phases
Telophase Mitosis Functions of the Golgi apparatus include
Modification of the products of the rough ER
Manufacture of certain macromolecules
Is the cell’s “post office”. Golgi apparatus Ribosomes
Are particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein
Carry out protein synthesis
Travel between nucleus and cytoplasm Ribosomes: Protein Factories in the Cell Mitochondria
Are found in nearly all cells
Number correlates with cell metabolic activity
Site of cellular respiration
Makes ATP
Stores ATP
Move, change shape, and divide Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion Cytoplasm is the semifluid material in which life functions take place
Organelles within the cytoplasm: (ex. Lysosomes – digest pathogens within the cell.) CYTOPLASM Phagocytosis is “cell eating” of particles

Pinocytosis is “cell drinking” of substances within solution MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES Semipermeable membrane Diffusion is the process where substances pass across a membrane generally from an area of greater concentration to one of lesser concentration MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES Spindle METAPHASE Centrosome at one spindle pole The longest phase
Centrosomes are at opposite ends of cell
Chromosomes arrange in single file
Mitotic spindle is fully formed Metaphase Locomotor appendages of some cells

Undulating motion

Beating motion – back and forth Flagella and Cilia Basic unit of structure & function of all living things.
Can have specialized functions
3 Divisions
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm The Cell Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Plasma membrane Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Centromere Early mitotic spindle Chromatin (duplicated) PROPHASE INTERPHASE Interphase
Chromatids appear and pair up
Joined by centromere
Centrioles migrate to poles
Spindle fibers attach to chromatids
Chromatids become chromosomes
Nuclear membrane starts to dissolve Interphase and Prophase Multicellular diploid
adults (2n = 46) Mitosis and
development Diploid
(2n = 46) Testis Ovary FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS Sperm
Cell (n) Ovum (n) Haploid gametes (n = 23) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Key At sexual maturity
The ovaries and testes
produce haploid gametes by meiosis
At fertilization
The gametes combine to make a diploid zygote
The life cycle begins Meiosis -Tissue definitions
-Tissue types
-Tissue functions
-Tissue structures The Tissues Damaged tissues are repaired continually
Primary repair
Occurs in ‘clean’ wounds
Secondary repair
Occurs in open wounds with tissue loss TISSUE REPAIR 13 The human body has 10 organ systems:
Skeletal - Respiratory
Muscular - Circulatory
Digestive - Excretory
Integumentary - Nervous
Reproductive - Endocrine ORGANS AND SYSTEMS Lines joint cavities and excretes synovial fluid
Synovial membrane Connective Membranes Mucous – line surfaces that lead to outside of body
Produce mucous to protect, lubricate
Serous– line body cavities and covers most internal organs
Double walled – produces serous fluid btx layers to reduce friction
Parietal – lines cavity
Visceral – lines organ
Pleural membrane – lines thoracic cavity
Pericardial membrane – lines the heart cavity
Peritoneal membrane – lines abdominal cavity
Cutaneous– skin
Non-living cells exposed to environment Epithelial Membranes Two thin layers of tissue together
Two types (Epithelial and connective)
Epithelial membranes are classified according to secretions produced:
Mucous membranes
Serous membranes
Cutaneous membranes
Connective membranes support and connect the organs and tissues
synovial MEMBRANES Function – to support and connect organs and tissues
5 types
Adipose – stores lipids, cushions and insulates
Areolar – holds organs and blood vessels loosely in place, temporarily stores nutrients and wastes from cells
Made up mostly of collagen
Dense Fibrous – holds heavier body parts in place
Ligaments – hold bones together at joints
Tendons – Attach skeletal muscle to bones Connective Tissue TISSUES AND MEMBRANES Organs are groups of tissues joined together to perform a single function
An organ system is a group of organs that together perform a specific function ORGANS AND SYSTEMS Function – Conducts impulses to and from all parts of the body
Located in brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
Made of neurons
Cell body – contains nucleus
Axon – carries impulses away from cell body
Dendrites – carries impulses toward cell body Nerve Tissue Contains fibers that shorten to cause movement
3 types
Skeletal – produces heat/energy
Smooth – contracts
Cardiac – pumps blood
involuntary Muscular Tissues Supportive – Holds large body parts in place
2 types
Osseus (bone)
Vascular tissue – Liquids
2 types
Lymph Connective Tissues cont’d Functions
Cover and protect body surfaces and cavities
Produce secretions
3 types
Columnar Epithelial Tissues (pg 52-53) Groups of cells with same structure and function
4 Main types of tissues:
Epithelial tissue protects the body by covering internal and external surfaces
Connective tissue supports and connects organs and tissue
Muscle tissue contains cell material which has the ability to move the body
Nervous tissue contains cells that react to stimuli and conduct an impulse TISSUES The Structure and Function of:
-Flat, Long, Short, and Irregular Bones
-Smooth, Skeletal, and Cardiac Muscles
-Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous Tissues Bones, Muscles, and Skin Lesions of the Skin Pressure Ulcers (Decubitus) are the result of constant pressure against an area of tissue that lies over a bone Burns Classification of burns
First degree burns
Second degree burns
epidermis and dermis
Third degree burns
destruction of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous Burns Burns are the result of radiation from sun, heat, boiling water, steam, fire, chemicals, and electricity Sub-cutaneous layer Located below the dermis
Forms and stores adipose tissue for stored energy Nails (Onchy-) Function – protect tips of toes and fingers
Formed in nail bed
Made of keratinized cells Integumentary System Good Practices
(facility specific) Clean
Good nutrition
Surgical intervention Lesion Treatments Today, the treatment of decubitus ulcers is based on four
primary modalities:
(1) pressure reduction and prevention of additional ulcers
(2) wound management
(3) surgical intervention
(4) nutrition
An additional way to reduce pressure involves turning and repositioning the patient every 2h to reduce pressure on vulnerable areas. * May not be sufficient. Lesions of the Skin 4 Stages of pressure ulcers are:
Stage I - skin is red but unbroken
Stage II - blisters; broken or unbroken
Stage III - all layers of skin are broken
Stage IV - ulcerated area involves underlying muscles, tendons, and bones Burn Damage Vascular
Clot retraction
Clot destruction Skin Cancer Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and least malignant skin cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the epidermis and grows rapidly
Malignant melanoma is present in pigmented cells called melanocytes Wound Repair Disorders of the Skin Urticaria (hives)
Genital herpes
Shingles (herpes zoster) Acne vulgaris
Athlete’s foot
Ringworm Microorganisms Most skin bacteria are associated with hair follicles or sweat glands where nutrients and moisture are present
The best way to prevent disease is by washing the hands Receptors Function – to provide CNS with environmental information
Specific receptors for:
Pain Glands Sebaceous
Secretes sebum
Waterproofs and moisturizes
Secretes cerumen – ear wax
Protects eardrum
Sweat (sudoriferous)
Produces sweat for evaporative cooling
99% water, 1% waste
Lose ~ 500 mL/day
Pores – openings to ducts Dermis Made up of fibrous connective tissue, collagen and elastic fibers
Contains all skin appendages
Hair follicles
Receptors Epidermis Stratum Corneum
Outermost layer of epidermis
Made up of dead cells
Acts as barrier
Slightly acidic
Contains keratinized cells
Prevents evaporation
Stratum Spinosum
Only 8-10 cells thick
Stratum Germinativum
Innermost layer of epidermis
Mitosis takes place constantly Anatomy Layers of the skin:
Epidermis - the outermost covering of epithelial cells with no blood vessels
Dermis - true skin made of connective tissue and is vascular
Subcutaneous (hypodermal layer) lies under the dermis and consists of loose connective tissue Functions The skin has 7 functions:
Covers underlying tissues to protect against dehydration, injury, and germ invasion
Regulates body temperature
Helps manufacture vitamin D
Serves as the site of many nerve endings
Temporarily stores fat, glucose, water, and salts
Screens out ultraviolet radiation
Absorbs certain drugs and chemical substances Integumentary System Means covering
Largest organ in the body
Composed of skin and accessory organs:
hair, glands, receptors, and nails
7 Primary functions Hair Follicles Shaft – visible but dead
Root – ‘planted’ below skin surface
Function – protection
Scalp hair – sunlight and insulation
Eyelash/brow – dust/sweat out of eyes Epidermis Outermost layer
Protective layer
Contains Melanocytes
3 Main layers
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Germinativum Injections are made into the muscle, usually the deltoid muscle of the upper arm, vastus lateralis (anterior thigh), dorsal gluteal or ventral gluteal or buttocks INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS Effects of Training on Muscle Strength
Increase in muscle size
Improved antagonistic muscle coordination
Improved functioning in the cortical brain region HOW EXERCISE AND TRAINING CHANGE MUSCLES Effect of training on muscle efficiency:
Improved coordination
Improvement of the respiratory and circulatory system
Elimination or reduction of excess fat
Improved joint movement HOW EXERCISE AND TRAINING CHANGE MUSCLES Trunk muscles control breathing and the movements of the abdomen and the pelvis
Diaphragm – separates thoracic & abd. cavity
Rectus abdominis
External abdominal oblique
Internal abdominal oblique
Transverse adbominus MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK Head muscles
Neck muscles
Trunk and extremity muscles PRINCIPLE
SKELETAL MUSCLES Muscles require energy
Muscle cells break down glycogen to release ATP which produces heat and energy

Hemoglobin – carries oxygen and glycogen to muscle cells
Myoglobin – stores ‘backup’ oxygen Energy for Muscles Muscle tone – state of partial contraction
Important in maintaining body temperature
Atrophy is the shrinking of muscles from disuse
Hypertrophy is due to over-exercise and leaves muscles enlarged MUSCLE TONE Muscle contractions may be:
muscles contract and shorten – produces movement
Improves muscle tone, strength and size
Tension increases but muscle does not shorten
Improves muscle tone and strength MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS Muscles are attached to the bones by non-elastic cords called tendons
part attached to the bone
Moves least during contraction
part attached to movable part
Moves most during contraction MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS AND FUNCTIONS 4. Excitability/Irritability ~ability to respond to stimulus 2. Extensibility ~ ability of muscle to stretch

1.Contractability ~ ability of the muscle to shorten . The Muscular System Frontalis
– raises eybrows
Orbicularis oris
closes lips
closes jaw
closes jaw
rotates head
raises and lowers
shoulders MUSCLES OF THE HEAD and NECK Muscle fatigue is caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in muscles
Blood is unable to transport enough oxygen to the bloodstream
Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle, impeding contraction and causing fatigue and cramping MUSCLE FATIGUE Muscles are arranged in pairs
prime mover produces movement in a single direction
antagonist moves bone in opposite direction
muscles that work together are called synergists MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS AND FUNCTIONS cont’d 3.Elasticity ~ ability to return to original length Movement – contraction of muscles move the skeleton and make facial expressions possible
Posture- continual contraction maintains body position when standing and sitting.
Heat Production- a byproduct of muscle contraction is heat, which helps keep the body warm. Functions of the muscular System 5. Tone ~ slight tension in the muscles at all times, even at rest. All muscles have five common characteristics:
Excitability or irritability
OF MUSCLES Skeletal muscles:
Attached to bones.

Smooth muscle:
Surround organs, tubes, eg. stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels.

Cardiac muscles:
Heart muscle makes your heart pump blood.

Sphincter (dilator) muscles Types of muscles Latissumus Pectorals Deltoid Muscles of the upper extremity help to move the:
Shoulder (scapula)
Arm (humerus)
Forearm ( tibia and fibula)
UPPER EXTREMITIES Gastrocnemius Gluteus Maximus Quadricep Assist in the movement of the thigh, leg, ankle, foot, and toes MUSCLES OF THE
LOWER EXTREMITIES Diarthroses (movable) joints – consists of 3 parts:
Articular cartilage
Two main divisions:

Cranium consists of 8 bones fused together.
Face has 14 bones. Most are fused, whilst others like the mandible (lower jaw bone) can move independently AXIAL SKELETON cont’d 15 SUPPORT - organs and tissues of the body are held in place by the skeleton.
PROTECTION – provides a rigid surface for protection of vital organs ie. cranium protects the brain
MOVEMENT – bones provide a base for muscle attachment. It allows movement of the body through using the bones as levers.
PRODUCTION (hemopoiesis) & STORAGE – bones provide a site for manufacture of red (erythropoiesis) & white (leucopoiesis) blood cells and storage of minerals such as Calcium & Phosphorus FUNCTIONS 2 SKELETAL SYSTEM Fracture
Sprain - ligaments
Strain – muscles or tendons Basic Bone Disorders JOINTS AND RELATED STRUCTURES cont’d Amphiarthroses (partially movable) joints
Ex: ribs to spine

Synarthroses (immovable) joint ex: cranial sutures 30 Ex:
Ball-and-socket joints – Hip & shoulder
Socket is referred to as the acetabulum
Hinge joints – knee & elbow
Pivot joints – atlas & axis in c-spine
Gliding joints - vertebrae JOINTS AND RELATED STRUCTURES cont’d Muscle shortens toward the ORIGIN. The origin is where muscle is attached to immovable bone.
Muscle INSERTION is at movable bone. Joints and Related Structures Thigh
Phalanges Thigh/Leg/Foot Ilium
False Pelvis
True Pelvis
Acetabulum Pelvic Girdle Hand Humerus (2)
Ulna (2)

Phalanges Arm Clavicles (2)
Scapulae (2)
Acromonion process Shoulder girdle/pectoral girdle Forms mainly the extremities of the body and their connections to the axial skeleton
Consists of
limbs (arms & legs)
Shoulder (Clavicles & scapulas) and pelvic girdles (ilium, ischium and the pubis) APPENDICULAR SKELETON 22 Parts:
Manubrium – top
Xiphoid Process
12 pairs of ribs
Joined to thoracic vertebrae
7 pair of true ribs
3 pair false ribs
Remaining two have “free” ends – ‘floating’ 21 ATLAS – first cervical vertebra
AXIS – second cervical vertebra
Spinal chord runs down the canal formed by the vertebra being stacked on top of one another.
Intervertebral Discs are found between each vertebrae and keep spine flexible and they absorb shock
Coccyx remnant of a tail AXIAL SKELETON cont’d 19 Nasal (5)
Maxilla (2) – upper jaw
Lacrimal (2) – contains tear ducts
Zygomatic (2) – cheek
Mandible – lower jaw – only movable facial bone Facial bones 17 Ethmoid
Sphenoid Frontal
Parietal (2)
Temporal (2)
Occipital 8 cranial bones (pg 89) 16 The axial skeleton forms the basic structure supporting the rest of the skeleton.

It consists of:
Vertebral column
Rib cage AXIAL SKELETON 14 There are about 206 bones found in an adult skeleton.

The bones are divided into two main groups

(2) APPENDICULAR SKELETON STRUCTURE OF SKELETON 13 Bones that don’t fit other categories
Primarily spongy bone with thin covering of compact bone
Vertebrae, facial bones, skull bones Irregular Bones Thin, flat, usually curved
Sandwich – spongy bone in middle, compact bone as outer layers
Cranial bones, ribs, shoulder blades, hip bones Flat Bones Cube shapes
Mostly composed of spongy bone
Carpals (wrist and ankle) Short Bones Diaphysis is the long, hollow cylinder of hard, compact bone
At each end of the diaphysis is an epiphysis – growth plates
The medullary canal in the center, is filled with marrow, and is surrounded by compact or hard bones
Periosteum – outer covering of long bone.
Tough, fibrous tissue containing blood vessels, lymph nodes and nerves LONG BONES Bones are classified into 4 groups according to their shape:

LONG BONES – incl. humerus, radius, tibia and phalanges

SHORT BONES – incl. carpals and tarsals

FLAT BONES – incl. skull, pelvis, ribs and shoulder blades (Flat bones protect vital organs and provide sites for muscle attachment)

IRREGULAR BONES – incl. facial bones and vertebrae TYPES OF BONES 8 Bone Marrow Bone marrow is the spongy tissue in the cavities of the bones.
It is the blood cell ‘factory’ – it makes blood cells.
Healthy bone marrow releases blood cells into the blood stream when they are mature and when our body needs them. 7 (2) CANCELLOUS BONE TISSUE
or “spongy bone”
Honeycomb appearance
Strong, hard & less dense than compact bone
Found mainly ends of bones
Heavy, dense, strong bone tissue
Ivory appearance & covers the complete bone
Thickest at the center of the shaft TYPES OF BONE TISSUE 5 Bones consist of cells called osteocytes – mature bone cells
From from osteoblasts
Mature osteocytes are formed by ossification - the process where mineral matter starts to replace cartilage, creating bone. STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF BONE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Divided into 5 main regions
Cervical spine (7)
Thoracic spine (12)
Lumbar spine (5)
Sacrum (5)
Coccyx (4)

The 5 sacrum vertebrae and 4 coccyx vertebrae are fused to form one solid bone.

Numbered from top down
(C1-C7, T1-T12, L1-L5) AXIAL SKELETON cont’d 18 Flexion – decrease the angle
Extension – increase the angle
Abduction – away from the midline
Adduction – towards the midline
Circumduction – combination of previous 4
Rotation – move around an axis
Pronation – palm down
Supination – palm up TYPES OF MOTION -The Heart
-The Vessels
-The Respiratory System The Cardiovascular System Heart transplant is needed when individual’s heart can no longer function properly
Organ rejection may occur even when tissue type is matched
Immunosuppressants are drugs used to suppress recipient’s immune system from rejecting donor organ HEART TRANSPLANTS Angioplasty (balloon surgery)
Coronary bypass
Cardiac stints TYPES OF HEART SURGERY Congestive heart failure is similar to heart failure but includes edema in lower extremities
Rhythm/Conduction defects
Heart block
Premature contractions
Fibrillation DISEASES OF THE HEART Prevention of heart disease
Not smoking
Regular exercise
Maintaining ideal weight
Reduction of triglyceride and cholesterol levels
Maintaining normal blood pressure DISEASES OF THE HEART Infectious diseases of the heart
Rheumatic heart disease DISEASES OF THE HEART Coronary Artery disease (CAD)
Narrowing of the arteries that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart
Angina pectoris - severe chest pain from inadequate oxygen to heart
Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - caused by lack of blood supply to heart DISEASES OF THE HEART Cardiac catheterization is the insertion of a catheter into the femoral artery or vein
Dye is inserted and pictures are taken as fluid moves through the heart
Stress tests determine how physiological stress and exercise affect the heart DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR HEART AND CIRCULATORY FUNCTION Pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
Conducting cells found at the opening of the superior vena cava that control heart muscle contractions
Sends out electrical impulses that begin and regulate the heart
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
Records electrical activity of heart CONTROL OF HEART CONTRACTIONS Lubb dupp sounds - Sounds made by the valves during the cardiac cycle
Lubb - sound made when the tricuspid and bicuspid valves close between the atria and ventricles
Systole - contraction
Dupp - Caused by semilunar valves in the aorta and the pulmonary artery closing
Diastole - relaxation Lubb/Dupp Stroke volume:
Amount of blood ejected each beat
Between 60 and 80 ml of blood on average
Cardiac output:
The amount of blood ejected from heart per minute
The heart at rest beats between 72 and 80 times per minute
All blood pumped through ~ once a minute HEART RATE AND
CARDIAC OUTPUT CARDIAC CYCLE The heart is a hollow, muscular, double pump
4 layers of tissue
Pericardium - double layer of fibrous tissues surrounding heart
Parietal pericardium
Visceral pericardium/epicardium
Myocardium - cardiac muscle tissue
Endocardium - Smooth inner lining
Septum - Muscular wall separating heart into two halves STRUCTURE OF THE HEART Heart
Blood ORGANS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM HEART Common symptoms of heart disease
Mitral valve prolapse DISEASES OF THE HEART Four chambers of the heart
Right atrium
Left atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle STRUCTURE OF THE HEART Structures leading to and from the heart:
Vena cava
superior and inferior
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins
Aorta STRUCTURE OF THE HEART The heart is the main organ responsible for circulating the blood throughout the body efficiently THE HEART Heart pumps and circulates blood to all parts of the body
Blood vessels circulate blood between heart and cells
Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away wastes
Lymph system returns excess fluids from tissues and makes lymphocytes FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Two major functions occur with each heart beat
Right heart: Blood is taken to the lungs for oxygen
Left heart: Blood is taken from lungs to be circulated throughout body
The heart receives its blood supply from the coronary artery CARDIAC CYCLE cont’d Four valves permit blood flow in only one direction
Tricuspid valve
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Aortic semilunar valve STRUCTURE OF THE HEART Blood leaves the heart through arteries and returns to the heart from veins
The general (systemic) circulation carries blood throughout the body
Cardiopulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to lungs and back MAJOR BLOOD CIRCUITS Four major groups of blood
A - AB
B - O
Blood type inherited from parents
Antigen - protein present in blood
Antibody - protein in plasma
Agglutinogen - antigen
Agglutinin - antibody BLOOD TYPES Thrombocytes are the smallest of the solid components of blood
Initiate coagulation
Coagulation - clotting of the blood
Coagulation process (pg 229)
The time it takes for blood to clot is known as clotting time
Human clotting time: 5 to 15 minutes THROMBOCYTES
(BLOOD PLATELETS) Defense against injury and disease
2 Types of Leukocytes:
Neutrophils – phagocytize bacteria
Eosinophils – attack parasitic worms by degranulation
Basophils – phagocytize; produce histamine and heparin WHITE BLOOD CELLS RED BLOOD CELLS
Hemoglobin BLOOD COMPOSITION Plasma - liquid portion of blood without the cellular elements
Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelets BLOOD COMPOSITION Transporting fluid of the body
Nutrients from digestive tract
Oxygen from lungs
Waste products from cells
Aids in heat distribution
Regulates acid-base balance FUNCTION OF BLOOD Embolism
Septicemia Anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia
Sickle cell anemia
Polycythemia DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD The Rh factor is found on the surface of red blood cells
Rh positive – have Rh antigen
Rh negative – do not have Rh antigen Rhesus (Rh) Factor WHITE BLOOD CELLS cont’d Agranulocytes
Produce antibodies
B-lymphocytes – made in bone marrow
T-lymphocytes – grow up in thymus gland
‘wall off’ and isolate infected areas
Formed in bone marrow and spleen Erythropoiesis
Formation of red blood cells
Occurs in red bone marrow
RBC counts
Men – 4.5-6.2 million/µL venous blood
Women 4.2-5.4 million/µL venous blood
Rupture of red blood cell
cont’d Contains following 6 substances in solution Water
Plasma proteins*
Nutrients Electrolytes
Hormones, vitamins, and enzymes
Metabolic waste products BLOOD PLASMA BLOOD Albumin
Most abundant plasma protein
Maintains osmotic pressure
Clotting factor
Immune function
Clotting factor PLASMA PROTEINS Blood Groups cont’d Pulse is taken at seven locations:
Brachial artery
Common cartoid artery
Femoral artery
Dorsalis pedis artery
Popliteal artery
Radial artery
Temporal artery PULSE Pulse - alternating expansion and contraction of an artery as blood flows through it PULSE Blood flowing into fetus may follow two paths:
Foramen ovale permits blood to flow from right to left atrium
Blood flows from right ventricle to pulmonary artery to the aorta
Ductus arteriosus allows blood to flow from pulmonary artery to aorta FETAL CIRCULATION cont’d Fetus can’t use own lungs or digestive system
Obtains O2 and nutrients from mother’s blood
Fetal and maternal blood do not mix
All exchange occurs in placenta FETAL CIRCULATION Blood from pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon and spleen goes to liver before returning to the heart
Glucose storage
Blood flow to/from the heart
Portal - Hepatic
Blood flow to/from the liver
capillary venule Vein

Blood vessels are elastic BLOOD VESSELS Functions of circulation
Nutrients, oxygen, water, and secretions brought to tissues and back to heart
Carries wastes and carbon dioxide away from tissues
Equalizes body temperature
Aids in protecting body from bacteria CARDIOVASCULAR CIRCULATION CIRCULATION AND
BLOOD VESSELS Peripheral vascular disease
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) Aneurysm
Varicose veins
Cerebral hemorrhage DISORDERS OF
BLOOD VESSELS Coronary Circulation
Brings oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
Two branches encircle heart muscle
Left and right coronary arteries CORONARY CIRCULATION Tunica externa
Outermost layer
CT w/elastin and collagen
Protects, Strengthens, Anchors

Tunica media
Middle layer
Circular Smooth Muscle
Collagen & Elastic Fibers

Tunica intima
Innermost layer
Minimize friction Anatomy of Arteries and Veins MAJOR ARTERIES MAJOR VEINS Apnea – temporary stoppage
Dyspnea - difficult
Eupnea - normal
Hypernea - exaggerated
Orthopnea – difficult when horizontal
Tachypnea – rapid and shallow
AND STRUCTURES BRONCHIAL TREE Exchange of gases btx tissue cells and blood in capillaries
Tissue cells use O2 for metabolism and produce CO2 as a waste
CO2 is carried in blood as bicarbonate (HCO3) in plasma and on RBCs
Bicarbonate decomposes into H2O and CO2 and is exhaled as water vapor PROCESS OF RESPIRATION:
Internal Respiration Also called breathing or ventilation
Consists of inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation)
Exchange of O2 and CO2 btx environment and lungs
O2 diffuses from alveoli into the blood
CO2 diffuses from the blood into air in the alveoli PROCESS OF RESPIRATION:
External Respiration Process of Respiration
External respiration (breathing or ventilation) - exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs, body, and outside environment
Internal respiration - exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between cells and lymph surrounding them
Cellular respiration (oxidation) - involves the use of oxygen to release energy stored in nutrient molecules such as glucose PROCESS OF RESPIRATION RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Cancer of the lungs
Cancer of larynx
Pulmonary embolism
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Noninfectious
Anthrax Infectious causes
Common cold
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve volume
Vital lung capacity
Residual volume
Functional residual capacity
Total lung capacity LUNG CAPACITY
AND VOLUME Inhalation/inspiration
Active phase
Diaphragm contracts, thoracic cavity increases in volume
Decreases intraalveolar pressure
Passive phase
Diaphragm relaxes, thoracic cavity decreases in volume
Increases intraalveolar pressure THE BREATHING PROCESS One cell thick
Gas exchange
Liquid inside alveoli that increases surface tension ALVEOLI Windpipe
Extends from larynx to mediastinum
Splits into R and L bronchi TRACHEA Voice box
Passage for air b/t pharynx and trachea
Formed by 9 cartilages
Adams apple
2 major ‘cords’
Lower pair are true vocal cords LARYNX Throat
Extends from base of skull to level of C6
Serves as both respiratory and digestive system
Opens into larynx and esophagus
Epiglottis PHARYNX Made of bone and cartilage
Nasal cavity
Nasal septum
As air passes through:
Filtered by cilia
Warmed by capillaries
Moistened by mucous
4 pairs of sinuses NOSE Body divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts

Upper respiratory tract (URT):
Nose, pharynx, larynx
Lower respiratory tract (LRT):
Trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

Bronchial tree = bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli CONDUCTING PASSAGES C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + (ATP + Heat) Also called oxidation
O2 diffuses into cell, undergoes respiration PROCESS OF RESPIRATION:
Cellular Respiration Provides exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the body
Responsible for production of sound FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Nervous control
Groups of neurons in medulla oblongata and pons
Phrenic nerves (motor nerves) control diaphragm and intercostal rib muscles
Chemoreceptors in arteries detect CO2
Chemoreceptors in carotid and aorta detect O2
Communicate with medulla oblongata REGULATION OF RESPIRATION Mediastinum Mediastinum
Rest on diaphragm
R Lung
Shorter, broader, greater volume
3 lobes
L Lung
Longer, narrower
Cardiac notch
2 lobes
Pleural membrane LUNGS -Humoral versus Acquired Immunity
-Lymphatic system Immunology http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy.html TED Talks There is no cure for AIDS yet certain drugs are used to slow the virus
Transmission is prevented by following the CDC’s Standard Precautions AIDS/HIV Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
Flu-like symptoms
Enlarged lymph glands AIDS/HIV Screening tests for HIV/AIDS
There are two antibody tests
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - detects antibodies for AIDS but not the virus
Western blot is the follow-up to confirm ELISA results AIDS/HIV Transmission of AIDS
Sexual contact with infected partner
Sharing hypodermic needles among IV drug users
In utero or at birth of infected mother
Transfusion of blood AIDS/HIV Acquired - disease is not inherited
Immune - body’s natural defenses
Deficiency - lacks cellular immunity
Syndrome - diagnosed from sets of diseases or conditions present AIDS/HIV Lymphadenitis - enlargement of the lymph nodes that occurs when infection is present
Hodgkin’s disease - form of cancer of lymph nodes
Infectious mononucleosis - caused by Epstein-Barr virus DISORDERS OF THE
LYMPH SYSTEM Hypersensitivity
Overreaction to harmless foreign substance
Antibodies irritate certain body cells
Allergen - antigen causes allergic responses
Anaphylactic shock - severe, often fatal allergic reaction IMMUNITY http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/vaccines/view/ The Vaccine War Immunity is the body’s ability to resist invaders and disease
Born with it, inherited, lasts a lifetime
Reaction as a result of exposure
Active – lasts a long time
Natural – Exposed to disease
Artificial – Vaccination/immunization
Passive – lasts a short time; produces immed. immunity
Natural – from mother’s milk/placenta
Artificial – Serum, immunoglobin, antitoxin IMMUNITY LYMPH NODES 2 large main lymphatics
Thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)
Receives lymph from left side of head, neck, abdominal area, and lower limbs
Right lymphatic duct
Circulates lymph from right arm, right side of head, and upper trunk to the superior vena cava LYMPH VESSELS Similar to blood plasma
Lymph diffuses from capillaries into tissue spaces
Lymph acts as an intermediary between blood in capillaries and tissues
Lymph carries digested food, oxygen, and hormones to cells
Also contains water, lymphocytes, some granulocytes
Does not contain RBC LYMPH THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys T4-lymphocyte cells without causing symptoms
Opportunistic infections arise
Three outcomes of HIV infection:
AIDS-related complex (ARC)
Asymptomatic infection AIDS/HIV Autoimmunity
Occurs when a person’s own immune system targets normal cells, tissues, and organs of person’s own body
Causes range from genetics to viruses to sunlight exposure
Lupus IMMUNITY Vaccines The thymus’s function (in the lymphatic system) is to produce lymphocytes called T-lymphocytes
The thymus is also an endocrine gland because it secretes a hormone called thymosin that stimulates the production of lymphoid cells THYMUS GLAND The spleen is a saclike mass of lymphatic tissue that forms lymphocytes and monocytes
The spleen filters blood that passes through it, destroying old or fragile red blood cells
The spleen stores large amounts of red blood cells SPLEEN Tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissues capable of producing lymphocytes and filtering bacteria
Three pairs of tonsils
Lingual TONSILS Lymph nodes provide sites for lymphocyte production and screen harmful substances from the lymph
Bacteria and other harmful substances in large quantities may injure the lymph node
Adenitis - swelling in lymph gland LYMPH NODES Lymph fluid acts as intermediary between blood, capillaries, and tissues
Lymph vessels transport tissue fluid back into circulatory system
Lymph nodes produce lymphocytes and filter harmful bacteria
Spleen produces lymphocytes and monocytes, acts as a reservoir for blood, and recycles red blood cells
Thymus gland produces T-lymphocytes for immune system FUNCTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Our Immune System The cells of the immune system Lymph vessels accompany and are similar to veins
They are in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vessels
Lymph only travels in one direction: from body organs to the heart
Returns to organs through arteries
Lymph vessels Lymphatic ducts LYMPH VESSELS (pg 162 MT) Be CLEAN!!! In short Hand washing:
Wash hands after touching anything, regardless of glove presence
Use plain soap for hand washing
Wash hands for a minimum or 20 seconds Standard Precautions Use of bacteria, viruses, or germs to cause illness and spread fear

Example: anthrax
Table 16-3 for your information Bioterrorism Clostridium difficile
Staphylococcus aureus

These are infections acquired in a hospital or other health care facility that was not present at admission. Nosocomial Infections Suppressor T cells – suppress the activities of B and T cells
Memory cells – hang around to remember old foes
Macrophages – phagocytize invaders and do antigen presentation
Lymphokines – chemicals that act as chemical signals to tell the immune system how to function. Specific Immune Defense B cells – can clone themselves to make plasma cells and memory cells
Plasma Cells – secrete huge quantities of antibodies
Helper T cells – stimulate the production of killer t cells and more B cells, make lymphokines
Killer T cells – kill virus-invaded body cells and cancerous cells and are involved in graft rejection Specific Immune Defense BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Host and Agent
Proper nutrition
Isolation BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between portal of entry and host
Maintain skin integrity
Use sterile techniques Between agent and reservoir:
Cleanse: cold water, detergent, warm water, dry
Disinfection: elimination of agents from inanimate objects by chemicals
Sterilize: total elimination – autoclaving, boiling, UV light, etc. *Not all organisms can be “killed” BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Host: is a simple or complex organism that can be affected by an agent
Susceptible host – a person who lacks resistance and is vulnerable (young and elderly)
Compromised host – a person whose normal defense mechanisms are impaired (HIV/AIDS) Chain of Infection, continued Portal of Entry: the route by which an infectious agent enters the host
The integumentary system
Respiratory tract
Genitoruinary tract
GI tract
Circulatory system
Transplacental Chain of Infection, continued Mode of Transmission: The process that bridges the gap between the portal of exit and the NEW host
Contact transmission: physical touch:(think, STDs)
Airborne transmission: droplets or dust particles are suspended in the air: for example, spores of anthrax
Vehicle Transmission: contaminated inanimate objects such as water, meat, food, blood
Vectorborne transmission: an animate non person spreads the disease (think, ticks) Chain of Infection, continued Agent: the entity that is capable of causing disease
Biological (bacteria, viruses, etc)
Chemical (medications, industrial chemicals, pesticides)
Physical (heat, noise, light, radiation) Chain of Infection, continued Parasitic worms
Pinworms and tapeworms are the most common
Acquired by eating undercooked meat Helminths Need iron, food, good pH, moisture
Some are spore-formers
Trigger very high fevers
Treatable with ANTIBIOTICS when in the body
Treatable with ANTIBACTERIALS when outside the body
Illnesses associated with bacterial infections:
Urinary tract infections
gonorrhea Bacteria - Continued Bacteria-small, one-celled microorganisms that have no true nucleus
Viruses – obligate intracellular organism made of protein and nucleic acid
Fungi – microscopic plant-like organisms
Protozoa – single celled parasitic organisms that can move around
Rickettsia – intercellular parasites that need to be in living cells to reproduce (spread by ticks)
Helminths – parasitic worms (pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms) Meet the Bugs Pathogenicity – the ability of the bug to produce disease
Virulence – the frequency with which the bug WILL cause disease
Factors influencing virulence:
Ability to adhere to cells
Ability to damage cells
Ability to evade or destroy immune function Pathogenicity and Virulence Flora: microorganisms that occur or have adapted to live in a specific environment such as the intestine, gut, vagina, or oral cavity.
Transient flora
Occur in periods of limited duration
Resident flora
Important for our health
Prevent disease Flora Flora
Pathogenicity and Virulence (the bugs)
Chain of Infection
Breaking the Chain of Infection
Normal Defense Mechanisms
Stages of Infectious Process
Nosocomial Infections (healthcare facility acquired)
Standard Precautions and Isolation Overview Gloves: clean, non-sterile, change OFTEN
Mask, Eye Protection, Face Shield: splashables and sprays – protects mucous membranes
Gown: remove when soiled to prevent spreading
Client Care Equipment: they get soiled, change, sterilize
Linens: handle and transport with care. Use gloves
Never re-cap needles, always dispose in sharps containers. REPORT STICKS!
Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, etc.
Isolate contamination risks
Reverse isolation to prevent patients from infecting themselves (burn patients, etc.) Standard Precautions Incubation: time interval between entry and the onset of symptoms
Prodromal Stage – the time interval from the onset of non-specific symptoms until specific symptoms begin to appear (I.e. – fever)
Illness – the time period when the client is manifesting actual symptoms
Convalescent state – the period of time from the beiginning to the disappearance of acute symptoms Stages of the Infectious Process Defenses against all invaders:
Normal flora
Mucous membranes
Elimination and acidic environments
Inflammation Non-specific Immune disease BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between Mode of Transmission and Portal of Entry
Wash your hands
Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) PROPERLY BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between portal of exit and mode of transmission block the exit
Cover your mouth when sneezing (NOT WITH YOUR HANDS!)
Gloves – proper usage
Don’t prance around ill Age
Concurrent disease
Immunization/vaccination status
Nutritional status
Heredity Factors to consider for host infections Portal of Exit: the route by which an infectious agent leaves the reservoir to be transferred to a susceptible host.
Examples are sputum, semen, vaginal secretions, urine, saliva, feces, blood, and draining wounds (pus) Chain of Infection, continued Reservoir: the place where the agent can survive.
Most common reservoirs are
Fomites (objects contaminated, dressings, instruments) Chain of Infection, continued Chain of Infection Giardia Infection is spread through food, water, insect bites
Common infections:
Vaginal infections
Most prefer dead or decaying
organic matter
NOTE:(YOU ARE ORGANIC MATTER!!!) Protozoa Diseases are referred to as mycoses
Found mainly in the immunologically challenged
Mucous membranes

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) Fungi -Hijack your cells to make more
-May possess an envelope that protects from the immune system
-Often never leave the cell
-CANNOT be treated with Antibiotics
-Common diseases:
Genital Herpes
West Nile Virus
Diarrhea Viruses Bacteria Clostridium difficile AKA “C diff”
Antibiotics course
Antibiotics course
Probiotics??? Disruption of Normal Flora (or, how to keep yourself healthy and alive.) Infection Control and standard precautions BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION Between Reservoir and Portal of Exit:
Good hygiene by health workers
Clean dressings
Clean linens
Clean equipment (wear gloves!) ~150 cases per year in NC Intercellular parasite
Must be in a living cell to reproduce
Spread by fleas, ticks, mites, and lice
Common illnesses:
Lyme disease
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Typhus Rickettsia -Glands
-Receptor Specificity
-Gland interaction Endocrine System Tests for Diabetes Mellitus
Blood samples
glucometer (glucose monitor)
glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) PANCREATIC DISORDERS STEROID ABUSE IN SPORTS The parathyroid glands regulate the use of calcium and phosphorus
Kidney stones
Calcium taken from bones
Tetany - low levels of calcium affects the nerves PARATHYROID DISORDERS Blood tests are done to diagnose
Due to overactivity of thyroid gland
Hypersecretion of thyroxin
Due to inflammation of thyroid gland
Thyroid isn’t able to secrete enough thyroxin THYROID DISORDERS Endocrine gland disturbances may be caused by:
Hypoactivity DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM There are many hormones produced throughout the body originating from many different glands and organs
Hormones secreted in various tissues throughout the body
Gastric mucosa
Produces gastrin which stimulates digestive enzymes
Mucosa of Small Intestines
Secretin – stimulates pancreas to release fluid that neutralized stomach acid after it reaches large intestine
Cholecystokinin – stimulates contraction of gall bladder to release bile
Stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
Temporary endocrine gland
Secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Stumulates mother’s ovaries to secrete progesterone to maintain uterine lining OTHER HORMONES PRODUCED IN THE BODY Attached to the third ventricle of the brain
Produces the hormone melatonin
Amount of light affects the amount of melatonin secreted
Causes body temperature to drop PINEAL GLAND Secreted by Islets of Langerhans
Specialized endocrine cells of pancreas
A cells – Glucagon
B cells - Insulin
Promotes use of glucose in cells before removing from blood
Promotes fatty acid, fat and AA transport into cells
Promotes protein synthesis
Secreted in response to low concentration of glucose in blood
Raises blood glucose levels
Stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose PANCREATIC HORMONES Located behind stomach
Functions as:
Exocrine gland
Secretes pancreatic juices into small intestine to become digestive juices
Endocrine gland
Produces insulin and glucagon PANCREAS Testes - male sex organ
Promotes maturation of sperm
Responsible for development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Helps maintain spermatogenesis at a constant rate GONADS - Male Epinephrine
Secreted in response to cortisol under sympathetic nervous control
Increases HR, dialates bronchioles, increases glycogen breakdown
Stimulates vasoconstriction in skin and viscera
Stimulates vasodilation in skeletal muscles
Similar but less potent than epinephrine ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES Mineralcorticoids
Aldosterone primary mineralcorticoid
Increases Na reabsorption in kidneys
Also assists with H2O reabsorption
Helps maintain blood pressure
Cortisol and cortisone
Secreted in times of stress
Sex Hormones
Androgens and Estrogens
Secreted in smaller quantities than at gonads ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES Two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney; each has two parts
Cortex - secretes 3 groups corticoids
Sex hormones (androgens and estrogens)
Medulla - secretes
norepinephrine ADRENAL GLANDS The thymus gland is both an endocrine gland and lymphatic organ
Large at birth, then decreases in size
The thymus secretes a large number of hormones
Role in development of immune system
Assist in development of T-lymphocytes THYMUS GLAND On posterior of thyroid gland
Function – maintain calcium and phosphorous balance
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Helps control blood calcium levels – increases
Increases osteoclast activity and decrease osteoblast activity
Increases Ca2+ reabsorption from kidneys PARATHYROID GLANDS Stimulated by TSH from pituitary
Control rate of metabolism
How cells use glucose and O2
Stimulates tissue growth
Stimulates breakdown of glycogen in liver
Helps control blood calcium levels - decreases
Decreases osteoclast activity and increase osteoblast activity THYROID HORMONES Thyroid glands
Located in the anterior part of neck
Extremely vascularized
Function – regulate body’s metabolism
Requires iodine to synthesize hormones
Secretes 3 hormones:
Thyroxine – T4
Triiodthyronine – T3
Calcitonin THYROID GLANDS Released as vasopressin
Converts to ADH in bloodstream
Increases H2O reabsorption in kidneys
Conserves H2O
Helps maintain normal blood volume ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) Increases skin pigmentation MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH) Promotes development of glandular tissue in breast
Stimulates production of milk
Present, but unknown function in males PROLACTIN (PRL) Stimulates ovulation
Stimulates formation of corpus luteum in ovary so it can produce progesterone LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH) Stimulates development of eggs in ovaries and sperm in testes
Stimulates estrogen production in females FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) Stimilulates secretion of cortisol from adrenal glands
Stimulates growth of adrenal glands ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH) Causes cells of thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones
Stimulates growth of thyroid gland THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) Also called somatotrophin
Stimulates mitosis
Levels directly affect appearance of a person
Regulated by 2 factors from hypothalamus
Somatostatin (GHIH)
Secreted during hyperglycemia GROWTH HORMONE (GH) Divided into two lobes
anterior pituitary lobe is larger and produces seven hormones – Growth H, TSH, Adrenocorticotropic CTH, Follicle Stimulating FSH, Luteinizing H, Prolactin, Melanocyte MSH (intermediate lobe)
posterior pituitary lobe is smaller and consists primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells secretes oxytocin & (Vasopressin) Antidiuretic hormone. HORMONES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND Control system that monitors hormone levels
Lack of hormone stimulates secretion of more or different hormone
Typically, the hormone made is the signal to shut off NEGATIVE FEEDBACK RECEPTORS Secretion of hormones or chemical messengers that coordinate and direct activities of target cells and organs
Exocrine glands – have ducts that carry secretions to a surface
Endocrine glands – do not have ducts; secretions go directly into bloodstream
Major glands of endocrine system
-pituitary - thyroid - thymus
-pineal - parathyroid - adrenals
Immune system attacks Beta and Alpha cells of the Pancreas
Thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental

Type 2 diabetes
Insulin resistance in cells
Pancrease can’t keep up. Glucose stays in blood
Genetic and Environmental
Highly linked to obesity and waist circumfrence What’s the Difference? Diabetes mellitus
Ineffective secretion or use of insulin
Type I - juvenile diabetes
Type II - adult diabetes
Glucose monitoring - Diet
Weight reduction - Medication PANCREATIC DISORDERS Hyperfunction of the Adrenal
Cushing’s syndrome
Hypofunction of Adrenal Cortex
Addison’s disease ADRENAL DISORDERS Hyperfunction of Pituitary
Hypofunction of Pituitary
Diabetes Insipidus
Caused by posterior lobe dysfunction PITUITARY DISORDERS Ovaries - female sex organ
Promotes maturation of ovum
Stimulates blood vessel growth to endometrium of uterus
Responsible for development and maintenance of female sex characteristics
Secreted by ovarian follicle after egg is released
Maintains uterine lining for pregnancy
If no fertilization occurs, menstruation occurs GONADS - Female Only released during childbirth
Causes uterine muscle contractions
Causes ejection of milk from breast
Pitocin = synthetic version OXYTOCIN Located at the base of the brain and connected to the hypothalamus
Divided into anterior and posterior lobes
Known as the master gland because of its major influence in body’s activities
Hypothalamus-Pituitary master – the hypothalamus controls the pituitary with chemicals PITUITARY
GLAND Chemical messengers
Secreted directly into blood
Travel to specific tissues
Bind to specific receptors
Either proteins or steroids
Have effect by modifying cellular activity HORMONES
Full transcript