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Chronic Training Adaptations

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Penelope Cleghorn

on 12 September 2018

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Transcript of Chronic Training Adaptations

Changes that occur to the body over time.
The body wants to be EFFICIENT at either the uptake, delivery and utilisation of oxygen during aerobic events or the powerful use of muscles during anaerobic events.
EFFICIENCY allows less STRESS to be put on the body.
AEROBIC EFFICIENCY allows the body to work at higher intensities for a longer duration, hence delaying LIP.

Chronic Adaptations to Training
Changes that occur to the heart, blood and blood vessels after aerobic training. The body increasing the efficient delivery of oxygenated blood to the working muscles.
Changes that occur at the muscle site after aerobic training. Increasing the efficiency of oxygen use at the muscle site.
Changes that occur to the muscles after anaerobic training. Increasing the muscle mass and ability to use the muscle during anaerobic activities.

-Heart Size
-Stroke Volume
-Heart Rate
-Cardiac Output
-Blood Pressure
-Blood flow to working muscles
-Blood Volume
Changes that occur to the lungs (including gaseous exchange) after aerobic training. Increasing the efficiency of oxygen entering the body.
-Tidal Volume
-Respiratory Rate
-Minute Ventilation
-Lung Diffusion
-Oxygen Consumption (VO2 MAX)
-Capillary Density
-Oxidative Enzymes
-Stores of triglycerides and glycogen
-Muscle fibres

-Muscle Hypertrophy
-Glycogen Stores
-ATP stores
-CP Stores
-Glycolytic Enzymes
-Cardiac Hypertrophy
Heart Size - INCREASES
Larger left ventricle (capacity of ventricle), hence the heart can hold more oxygenated blood and deliver more of this blood to working muscles every beat.
NB: The thickness of the wall remains the same for aerobic. During anaerobic training, the left ventricle was gets thicker.
Stroke Volume - INCREASES
Due to the increase in left ventricular capacity (the heart can hold more blood), more blood can be pumped into the body per beat
eg: untrained at max. 113mL/beat
trained at max. 179mL/beat
Heart Rate
Resting HR: LOWER
Sub-Maximal HR: LOWER
Slower increase to MAX
Due to the efficiency of the heart developed from aerobic training, our heart doesn't need to pump as often, to get the required oxygenated blood to working muscles.
NB: Faster return to resting HR but MAX HR does not change for an untrained individual to a trained individual
Cardiac Output - INCREASES
Remember: HR x SV = Q
Due to this relationship, at rest and sub-max activity, Q is relatively the same for a trained/untrained athlete, but at max intensity Q increases dramatically for a trained athlete.
NB: See board for example
Blood Pressure - DECREASES
-Decreases during rest and sub max activity.
-Increases during maximal activity, but not as much as an untrained individual.
Low BP allows for less strain and pressure on the body and blood flow
Blood Flow to Working Muscles - INCREASES
Greater control of the vascular system (blood vessels) to allow for vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Blood Volume - INCREASES
-The blood is made up of many parts (RBC, WBC, plasma etc.)
-The blood plasma contains the haemoglobin which allows for more oxygen rich blood to travel to the working muscles.
-Also allows for a greater amount of metabolic by-products to be removed from the body.
Arterio-Venous Difference - INCREASES
More oxygen is being utilised by the muscles and taken from the blood.

Can also be considered to be a VASCULAR response.
Tidal Volume- INCREASES
The amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled in one breath increases to allow more Oxygen to enter the body
Respiratory Rate
At rest and sub-maximal exercise - RR DECREASES
Due to the increased efficiency of the body to breath in and extract oxygen, the body doesn't need to breathe as often, which puts less stress on the body.
At Maximal intensity, RR INCREASES
Remember: TV x RR = MV
Due to this relationship, at rest and sub-max activity, MV is relatively the same for a trained/untrained athlete, but at max intensity MV increases dramatically for a trained athlete.
NB: See board for example
Minute Ventilation - INCREASES
Lung Diffusion - INCREASES
Otherwise known as pulmonary diffusion or alveoli diffusion
The ability to extract oxygen at the alveoli increases thus allow more oxygen to travel into bloodstream and more carbon dioxide to be removed
Oxygen Consumption at
sub-maximal - DECREASES
At rest and sub-maximal intensity, due to the efficiency of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems, the trained athlete doesn't need to uptake as much oxygen as an untrained person to meet the oxygen demands.
eg. body requires 8 oxygen molecules.
-Trained athlete uptakes 10, to use 8.
-Untrained person uptakes 20, to use 8.

Capillary Density - INCREASES
Increased number of capillaries around the muscle allowing more oxygenated blood to be extracted by the muscles.
Mitochondria (number and size) - INCREASES
Mitochondria are the 'powerhouses' of the cells where ATP is produced.
The larger the size and number of mitochondria allows more ATP to be produced.
Myoglobin - INCREASES
Myoglobin is the storage site for oyxgen in the muscle.

More Myoglobin means more oxygen be stored by the muscle and hence used to aerobically resynthesis ATP
Oxidative Enzymes - INCREASES
Oxidative enzymes help to break down the body fuels (fats, CHO).

More of these enzymes means more fuel can be broken down to allow more ATP to be resynthesised
Stores of Triglycerides and Glycogen - INCREASES
More amounts stored of these body fuels means they are more readily available for ATP resynthesis
Muscle Fibres
Type I fibres (slow twitch) become larger which allows for greater use of these muscles.
Some Type II fibres (fast twitch) take on the characteristics of Type I fibres (they don't turn into Type I, just behave like Type I fibres)
Muscle Hypertrophy - INCREASES
The growth and increase in size of the muscle cells to allow greater power and strength.
Glycogen Stores - INCREASES
More storage of glycogen allows greater use of this body fuel to resynthesise ATP anaerobically.
Due to the increase in muscle size, more ATP can be stored for immediate use during high intensity activity.
More storage of CP in the muscle allows for greater use of the ATP-CP system for high intensity activity.
Glycolytic Enzymes - INCREASES
These enzymes help to break down glycogen.

A greater number of these enzymes allows for a faster breakdown of glycogen to be used more readily during anaerobic activities.
Cardiac Hypertrophy - INCREASES
Oxygen Consumption at
sub-maximal - DECREASES
At maximal intensity, due to a number of factors (Q, MV, a-VO2, lung diffusion etc.) these increase the bodies ability to extract/transport/use oxygen, this allowing an increase in your VO2 MAX to meet oxygen demands.
eg. body requires 20 oxygen molecules.
-Trained athlete uptakes 25 to use 20
-Untrained person can only uptake 15 due to undeveloped chronic adaptations, so does not meet oxygen demands.
An increase in VO2 MAX delays your LIP.
Changes that occur to the muscles specifically after resistance training. Increasing the muscle mass and strength.
-Anaerobic Substrates
-Neural Adaptations: Motor Unit Recruitment and
-Hypertrophy: Myofibrils, contactile proteins and connective tissues
The thickness of the left ventricle wall increases, allowing the heart to more forcefully eject blood.
Anaerobic Substrates - INCREASES
Resistance training develops a larger muscle mass to enable larger stores of PC, Creatine, ATP and Glycogen
Motor Unit Recruitment - INCREASES
Motor unit (the nerve and muscle it actives).

A larger number of motor units are recruited or 'used' to enable a larger force production from muscles
Rate of Motor Unit Activation - INCREASES
More motor units are activated faster, allowing a faster rate of force development (speed of contraction)
Number and size of myofibrils - INCREASES
Myofibrils - parts of the muscle fibre than enable contractions to occur

Greater number of myofibrils and larger myofibrils allows increased force production.
Contractile Proteins- INCREASES
Helps rebuild muscle fibres faster which increases muscle mass to increase force production.
Size and length of connective tissues (ligaments, tendons) - INCREASES
Allows greater force to be produced in the muscle belly due to a greater attachment to bone from larger and longer ligaments and tendons.
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