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Transcript of *Italian Culture
Personal Space Time Orientation and
Personal Space Communication Styles Religion & Spirituality Communication Styles Family Life •Italians usually do not follow strict time schedules
•They value their time with family and friends more than sticking to schedules (Finney, n.d.)
•Italians have little concept of personal space (Going Global, 2012)
•They believe it is polite to be close to others
•Interaction with others is based on touch. Embracing others with hugging and kissing is common (Salamone, 2013) •Style of communication is very expressive and animated
•Openly convey emotions in everyday conversation
•They tend to speak loudly to others, interrupt frequently, and avoid silence in conversations
•Use elaborate hand gestures while talking (Going Global, 2012)
•Believe eye contact during conversation is very important (Salamone, 2013) Religion & Spirituality Majority of Italians are Roman Catholic
•Minority religions include Jewish, Muslim, & Orthodox (Palmisano, 2010)
•There is also some belief in the supernatural or Catholic Mysticism – the evil eye, receiving messages from Saints and angels, and omens (Salamone, 2013)
•Religion also guides the beliefs of Italians regarding marriage, fertility & artificial conception, abortion, and divorce (Sturino, 2012) Religious Practices •Roman Catholic customs guide much of everyday life (Moliterno, 2000) -Baptism
-Attending Mass (especially on Holy Days of Obligation)
-Prayer & the Lighting of Candles
-Last Rites •Religious holidays, Saints’ Days, and festivals are frequently celebrated (Finney, n.d.) Italian Food Customs Italian Food Customs Breakfast bread roll with jam, fruit salad, and cappuccino
Lunch 1:00pm heaviest meal of the day, can last two or more hours Traditionally consists of: Antipasto = appetizer (cold cuts)
Primo = first course (pasta, soup, or risotto)
Secondo = second course (meat, poultry, or fish)
Contorno = side dish (vegetable, potato, or salad)
Dolce = dessert (cake, pie, or gelato)
Digestivo = drink to conclude the meal (gappa, amaro, or other fruit/herbal drink)
Dinner 8:00pm or later, light meal (soup, salad, or cold meats) Italian Food Rules •Drink mineral water or wine with a meal rather than milk, soda, or juice
•Don’t sprinkle cheese on a seafood or fish dish
•Never cut pasta always twirl it
•Every dish is served in a different plate, mixing is strongly discouraged.
•Pasta is not typically eaten with meat
•Meals are meant to be enjoyed slowly and comfortably at a table, more or less at the same time every day
•Only drink tea when you are sick Childrearing Practices and
Family Life •Women predominantly raise the child (Lyn & Killian, 2010)
•Children are included in every aspect of life, and expected to fit in and make a contribution.
•Italian moms are known for their warm, involved mothering, which can border on over protectiveness. •Children are encouraged to live at home until they're married, or even longer. (Lyn & Killian, 2010)
•Parenting styles vary within the different regions in Italy, but in general, most parents take a casual approach to discipline. (Lyn & Killian, 2010)
•They encourage children to understand and appreciate the place of art and culture in a way that gives children a sense of inner happiness. Health Health Promotion Health Protection Health Protection Health Maintenance Health Restoration Traditional Medicines Gender Roles Role Practices Marriages •Marriages used to be arranged and had to bring a dowry for the wealthy. Meaning that women had to bring money or property to a marriage.
•The poor had more freedom
•Divorce used to be forbidden until now Role Practices Household •Involves more than just the nuclear family (other relatives)
•It is custom that newly weds live with the bride’s family for a period of time
•The husband was the ruler and the wife took care of the day-to-day chores
•This changed more women began to work Gender Roles •In the past, men worked and women took care of the home
•Men were given preferred status and treatment, while women stayed home
•Men considered the “head”, women were the “soul”
•Now, women both work and can take on previous roles of taking care of the household Birth Rituals Birth Rituals •In the case of hospital births, registration is done by the hospital or clinic where a child is born
•If you give birth at home, you must complete the registration yourself. An Italian birth certificate is issued automatically
•In Italy when someone goes into hospital, most of their family will go in too for support. They are supposed to have someone stay with them for the whole time they are in the hospital, so that the nurses are not overworked
•If the father signs the birth registration form, the baby has to have his surname. Birth Rituals (2) Childrearing Practices •Italians make an effort to include children in social events. A process of empowering people to increase control over and improve their own health (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2011, p. 27). Health can be promoted by working to reduce tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs use.
•Italy is implementing preventive policy measures including: school programs, health teaching for high risk groups, increases in alcohol taxation and changes in the Blood Alcohol Concentration limits for drivers of motor vehicles (Allimani et. al., 2010) Health Promotion •It is important that Italy uses water more efficiently. Water resources need to be managed more effectively (Europe needs, 2012). Drinking Water •Tick-borne, Mosquito-borne and Shadfly-borne diseases are an emerging public health concern in Italy due to global warming issues.
•Current efforts to control vector-borne diseases include vaccinations, increasing public awareness, researching influence of tourism, and researching distribution of rodent host populations (Vector-borne diseases, 2012). •Water resources are under pressure in Italy and it is becoming a bigger problem •Italy has extra financial and environmental costs for water due to the need for desalination of seawater for drinking water •Climate change is making water supply less predictable •Some water shortages have even led to drinking water restrictions Vector-Borne Diseases •Italy has unsafe levels of tropospheric ozone (O3), atmospheric particulate (PM10)and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
•More than 8 000 deaths a year can be attributed to high concentrations of PM10
•Current efforts to improve air quality include: reinforcement of local public transportation , testing of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles, traffic restriction measures, initiatives for alternative transportation, and research for sustainable transportation (Italy: Air Pollution, 2011). Air Quality A focus on health maintenance achieved by dealing with immediate health risks (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2011, p.110). Health protection can be improved by increasing healthy environments. Tobacco •In 2005, Italy became the first large European country to adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation, resulting in a significant reduction in tobacco use (Gallus et. al., 2007) Alcohol Illegal drugs- The Italian National Action Plan on Drugs 2010–2013 includes: •Demand reduction: prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and reintegration for drug users
•Supply Reduction: evaluation and monitoring of drug origins, improving legislation and youth justice. (Country Overview: Italy)
•Illness is seen as punishment for poor behaviour, so avoiding sins is important for maintaining health •Italy is rich in mineral and thermal springs, so many people will use these in order to maintain a healthy body. •Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil helps to maintain health •Many are religious (Roman Catholic), but there are still folk healers, which are said to have the gift of hands, as well as witches and reliance on charms and spells. •They see the doctor more frequently than other Europeans, and also rely on pharmaceuticals more often
•There is a distinction between fresh air and drafts. Avoiding drafts is important for staying well, whereas fresh air is good for healing.
•Traditionally chronic illness and disability is treated at home by the family rather than by health care workers •Basil: for lowering blood sugar, lower fevers, and reduce muscle spasms
•Lavender: the scent would relieve stress and cure headaches and depression
•Fennel: relieves gas, helps appetite and digestion, increase breast milk production, and used in a cleanser for eye infections
•Marigold: skin irritations, and an antiseptic
• Juniper and lemon: UTI’s, diuretic and anti-rheumatic
• Garlic: antibiotic, antispasmodic and to eliminate worms from the gut • In Italy the Caesarean section rate is 40% and this is can be because the doctors earn more money than they would from a natural birth.
• When pregnant they say not to eat cured meats, or soft unpasteurized cheeses
• Having children is recognized as an economic asset in Italian families.
• Godparents are chosen from relatives and friends to raise the children if the actual mother and father are unable to do so.
(Fassio, 2004). Baptism for Infants • The birth of a new family member is marked by a baptism ceremony, which relatives from everywhere attend to bless the new baby.
• The newborn is given a single name, normally based on a saint’s name.
(Amazing Getaway Plans, n.d.). Death Rituals • Deaths must be registered within seven days at the registry office of the town where they take place.
• In the event of a death, all interested parties must be notified. If a death takes place in a hospital, the attending doctor completes a certificate stating the cause of death
• Funerals in Italy are among the most expensive in Europe, frequently costing around €2,600 ($3,500 Canadian).
• You’re recommended to ignore recommendations given by hospital staff Death Rituals (2) • Bodies can be buried in three ways in Italy:
-in a family tomb,
-in an individual tomb or in a communal burial ground,
• Interment in a communal burial ground is free but considered demeaning by many Italians.
• Cremation is becoming increasingly popular, because it’s paid for by the local municipality. If the deceased hasn't requested cremation, a family member must make a formal request via a notary to the registry office.
• It is illegal to keep ashes at home or dispose of them in any other way(Fassio, 2004). Death Rituals Funerals • To prevent the soul of the dead person from finding its way back into the house, his or her body is taken with the feet coming out first so that the door used to leave should not be seen.
• Lamenting and wailing are not allowed to enable the spirit to arrive at its destination without confusion.
• To stop the soul from returning, frequent turns are made along the way to the cemetery and various paths are taken returning home following the burial (Amazing Getaway Plans, n.d.) Conclusion •Family is one of the most important aspects of life for Italians (Marshall, 2012). •Extended family members play an important role in Italian life with young families reliant on help from grandparents to help with the children, especially when both parents are out at work all day (Marshall, 2012). •One big change is the family’s size. Large families were ideal especially with a lot of boys or males. Today the birth rate has dropped to 1.2 births (Marshall, 2012). •Father is the head of the family and earns the money •The mother takes care of the children, cooking, and household duties In conclusion we wanted to show a video demonstrating the importance of cultural competency Thank you.