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Transcript of Sponges prezi
Are essentially a filter.
Need food and oxygen.
Create a current to take in water or position themselves near natural currents.
Water circulates through pores in their body
Collar cells (choanocytes) filter out the living organisms, which they then use as nutrients So what are sponges then? Here is a clip about sponges. It also shows the process using green dye. You can see as the people put dye around the sponge and then the sponge absorbs it and releases it. Sponge reproduce:
Release sperm into water similar to coral
In some species the "female" sponge hold the eggs
The females filter out the sperm Sponge Feeding:
Sponges feed by filtering out food particles in the water as they flow through the sponge
The particles must be smaller than 50 micrometers in order to be consumed.
Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from water into cells as water flows through body. What kinds of sponges are there?:
TONS! Over 5000 species
Freshwater and Saltwater
3 main groups:
Hexactinellida (glass sponges)
Calcarea Aka Sponges, But NOT the lufa in your shower! How this "pump" works:
Flagellum act as a pump sustaining a water flow throughout the sponge.
Spicules are the skeleton of the sponge and hold it up
Tons of cells doing different things
Like chimneys. Take in water from below and release it from their osculum. Hope you learned something! We will now pass out a snack and sponges while you can ask questions. Sponge Facts:
No tissue or organs
Have no body symmetry
Adapted for maximal water flow
First known animal species
Porifera means "pore-bearing"
Share almost 70% of human genes
They shoot water through their osculum at about 8.5 cm per second.
About 5000 know species Where do sponges live?:
No not in a pineapple
Sponges are found EVERYWHERE
Cold, hot, deep, shallow you name it and sponges are there! Spicules= sharp spikes located inside mesohyl, they act as a skeleton Osculum= big opening where water flows out of sponge Porocyte= cells with pores that allow water into the sponge, located all over the sponge's body Spongocoel= the central, open cavity in a sponge where water flows Mesohyl= gelatinous layer between the outer body and the spongocoel Epidermis= layer of cells that covers the outer surface of the sponge Archaeocytes= cells that have pseudopods, located in mesohyl, they process food and distribute it to other cells Flagellum= whip like structure of a choanocyte moves water through sponge Choanocyte= Lines the inner cavity of the sponge. They have a sticky, funnel-like collar that collects food particles, and a flagellum. The sponge obtains its nutrients and oxygen by processing flowing water using choanocytes. The Choanocyte are also involved in sexual reproduction, they catch floating sperm "Pore Bearing" Sponges reproduce cont.:
When conditions go bad, some sponges release "survival pods" that can grow into full sized sponges.
Sponges also use budding.
Fragmentation is another large form of asexual reproduction. Sponge life:
Have strong toxins to repel would-be predators
have many forms of defense
Because of this they can remain sessile. Sponges and the ecosystem:
important in nutrient cycles in coral reef systems
be important factors to changes in water quality
Sponge consume bacteria that can be harmful to reefs Demosponges
the largest class
90% of all sponges
all fresh water sponges
unfused silica spicules
tough keratin-like protein called spongin
OR combination of the two
widest range of habitats Calcarea
Calcium carbonate spicules
Diverse in tropics
Fossil records show that calcarea have been more abundant near shore
Mostly found in shallow water
One species has been known from a depth of 4,000 meters Hexactinellida
spicules of silica fused in a continuous and beautiful latticework
least common Aplysina fistularis YELLOW TUBE SPONGE Aplysina lacunosa Lissodendoryx colombiensis