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Do You Have Free Will? Presentation
Transcript of Do You Have Free Will? Presentation
Freedom has nothing to do with metaphysics, and can be missing or present in situations Thomas Hobbes David Hume Quick Facts Quick Facts Compatibilists' Definitions: Free Will: "Freedom to act according to one's determined motives without hindrance from other individuals" (the person is not restrained) Determinism: "For everything that happens there are conditions such that, given those conditions, nothing else could happen" Soft Determinism Example: Do or Die Situations A man robs a bank because he has a bomb strapped to his chest, and the people holding the detonator will set it off if he doesn't. The man has a wife and children at home who needs him to earn a living and survive, so he will rob the bank on the promise that they will set him free. The man has no free will in his actions. Compatibilism- Non-metaphysical free will
Incompatibilism- Metaphysical free will Metaphysics- "Traditional branch of philosophy explaining being and the world" Another Belief: Comaptibilists also believe that although the person is free to act on their motive, the motive is determined. Determinism and Compatibilists: Compatibilists often hold both Casual and Logical Determinism. Casual Determinism: All effects have causes.
Logical Determinism: The future is already determined. NOTE: Compatibilists' free will is not the ability to have chosen differently given the same situation over and over again. People always make the most true and possible choice in every situation. There are no alternatives-they are only hypothetical. Compatibilists argue that determinism is necessary for free will. Again with the bank idea..... If one's actions are not determined by one's beliefs, desires, and character, then how could one possibly be held morally responsible for those actions? Compatibilists, along with Hard Determinists, use moral systems to enforce that people's motives are fully determined. Famous Compatibilist Philosophers
1. Some person (qua agent), at some time, could have acted otherwise than she did.
2. Actions are events.
3. Every event has a cause.
4. If an event is caused, then it is causally determined.
5. If an event is an act that is causally determined, then the agent of the act could not have acted otherwise than in the way that she did. Classical Formulation: For the Free Will Problem: Bibliography: Wikipedia. "Compatibilism." N.p., 4 Apr. 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatibilism>.
This source was accessed for definitions and small concepts that were backed up in other websites. The list of references included writings from doctors, experts, and professionals, and their ideas are included in this presentation.
Wikipedia. "Determinism." N.p., 4 Apr. 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determinism>.
This source was accessed for definitions and small concepts that were backed up in other websites. The list of references included writings from doctors, experts, and professionals, and their ideas are included in this presentation. McKenna, Michael, "Compatibilism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2009/entries/compatibilism/>.
This source was chosen for the fact that it is an University Encyclopedia, and that it appeared to house a lot of useful information. The list of resources and references is extensive and impressive, including many experts, professors, doctors, etc. This source was used for a gaining or understanding as well as a few facts and definitions, including the Classical Formulation. Compatibilists attempt to revise and weaken the commonsense notion of free will. What They Try To Do: Britannica. "Compatibilism: Ancient and Medieval Compatibilism." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1519127/moral-responsibility-problem-of/284016/Compatibilism>.
This source was chosen for the fact that it is a trusted encyclopedia source used by many people. It was used to broaden my understanding of the concept of compatibilists and what they try to do. Some Compatibilist
Philosophers Thomas Hobbes
Frithjof Bergmann Comaptibilism Quotes "Man can do what he wills but he cannot will what he wills"-Arthur Schopenhauer
"The right of nature... is the liberty each man hath to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life." -Thomas Hobbes Hobbes, Thomas. "Thomas Hobbes Quotes." Brainy Quote. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/thomas_hobbes.html>.
This source was used for quotes from Thomas Hobbes. This is a trusted source, compiled of quotes from lots of different people and cross referenced from other trusted sources. Death Date: December 4th, 1679; Derbyshire, England Birthday: April 5th, 1588; Westport, near Mamesbury, Wiltshire, England
Schooling: Magdalen Hall in Oxford
Occupation: Historian, Philosopher, Political Scientist, Academic Author, Journalist Views on
Compatibilism Biography. "Thomas Hobbes." Bio. True Story.. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/thomas-hobbes-9340461>.
This is a trusted source that was used for quick facts on Thomas Hobbes Every event has a necessary cause- something always has to cause it
Desires and appetites arise in the human body and are experienced as discomforts or pains which must be taken care of. Thus, we are motivated to act in ways that we believe relieve our discomfort and maintain our own well-being.
Everything we choose to do is strictly determined by the need to relieve the physical pressures of our bodies. Human actions are nothing but the determination of the will by the strongest desire.
Human agents are free in the sense that their activities are not under restraint from anyone else. We have no reason to complain about the determination of the will as long as we aren't subjected to interference from others. Honderich, Ted, ed. "THOMAS HOBBES: CAUSATION ITSELF, DETERMINISM, AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH FREEDOM." N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctytho/dfwVariousHobbes.htm>.
This source appears to be trustworthy, and when cross-referenced, checks out. It was used to gain views from Thomas Hobbes. Kemerling, Garth. "Hobbe's Leviathan." Philosophy Pages. Britannica, 12 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/3x.htm>.
This is a trusted source as it is sponsored by Britannica, which is a trusted source guaranteeing that their information is correct. This source was used to gain Thomas Hobbes' views on compatibilism. Birthday: April 26th, 1711, Edinburgh
Schooling: University of Edinburgh
Occupation: Philosopher, Historian, Economist, Essayist
Death Date: August 25th, 1776, Edinburgh Thomas Hobbes David Hume Views on Compatibilism "But to proceed in this reconciling project with regard to the question of liberty and necessity; the most contentious question of metaphysics, the most contentious science…" —David Hume A Treatise on Human Nature and Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Free and responsible action must be caused by the agent.
No incompatibility between free will and determinism.
Free and responsible action (logically) requires causal necessity (a cause). Views Continued 1. Actions that are subject to moral evaluation are not distinguished from those that are not by an absence of cause but rather by a different type of cause. Responsible or morally free actions are caused by our own willings, whereas unfree actions are brought about by causes external to the agent. “spontaneity argument” 2. A liberty which means “a negation of necessity and causes” has no existence and would make morality impossible. “antilibertarian argument”.
3.Necessity, properly understood, is the constant conjunction of objects and the inference of the mind from one object to the other. “necessity argument”. Russel, Paul. "Hume on Free Will." Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy. N.p., 14 Dec. 2007. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hume-freewill/>.
This is a trusted source since it is a University Encyclopedia. It was used to gain some of David Hume's views and to deepen my understanding of compatibilism. Brooke McArthur (David Hume)