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DNA fingerprinting for paternity testing
Transcript of DNA fingerprinting for paternity testing
Paternity Testing 1920s - Blood Typing 1930s - Serological Testing -identified 4 different blood types
- A, AB, B, and O
- blood types were genetically inherited.
-predicted blood type of child based on parental blood types.
- scientist could use the blood types of the child and the known parent to identify the missing parent's blood type.
- used blood typing to determine paternity or maternity of a child.
-results were not specific enough - discovered other proteins in the blood that could be used for identifying humans.
- genetically inherited, proving useful in identifying possible biological relationships
- attempted to identify alleged fathers based on the blood groups of the child and mother
- once again not strong enough results - turned from blood typing to tissue typing
- discovered the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
- There are many different types of HLA, which vary between each person
-The power of exclusion for HLA testing alone is 80% and coupled with blood typing and serological testing is close 90%.
-it's collection process is uncomfortable and not ideal 1980s - DNA Testing Using RFLP Technique - developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
- first genetic test using DNA
- sections of DNA are highly variable and more unique than HLA and blood proteins
- ideal for identifying biological relationships.
- Half of the child's DNA should match the mother's DNA, and half should match the father's
-99.99% accuracy -polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique
- samples of DNA fragments are copied and replicated many times until billions of copies are made
-very small samples of DNA from any part of the body can be used in a DNA test.
-process is quick
- painlessly collected through buccal swabs from the mother, child, and alleged father
- samples will be replicated through PCR and compared for similarities
- results yielded from a paternity test using PCR technology are often higher than 99.99% Question
custody and child support Questioning affairs Societal
& Ethical Considerations Peace of Mind - test run just to be certain of biological relationship -resolves doubt Is this a breach of privacy?
Should this be a right of any potential father? Would this cause more divorce?
Is this positive or negative?
(unfaithful marriages ended) How will this effect our human genomes? Associations between particular gene mutations and disease are growing and tests can now determine the disease associated allele.
The hope for the future is the sequencing of a patient's entire genome to be affordable for health care, analyzing all of a patient's genes to detect which disease-associated gene variants they carry. Using paternity tests, it would be possible to see if the child would carry on these disease-associated traits from their parent. DNA can be found anywhere in the body, and be left behind easily When DNA replicates quickly, results can be found faster. this is helpful in criminal cases How does this relate to DNA replication? As DNA replicates quickly, a larger sample is not required Making testing less painful... ...and much more convenient! The polymerase chain reaction in paternity testing, mimics DNA replication , but limits it to the specific DNA sequences scientists are looking for!
This way, results are much more clear. DNA fingerprinting for paternity testing should be further developed in... Details of results could potentially be more detailed, specifying the genes and what they code for from each parent. I think the research should stop once it functions quickly enough for cases to be solved promptly.
There is not a great need for the research to continue past this point except for interest's sake. The details of the test! It's speed.
Faster results mean more cases can be attended to.
Perhaps a catalyst could be discovered. I agree with the use of DNA fingerprinting for paternity testing. I feel that everyone deserves to know who their biological parents are, regardless if they are being raised by them. I feel that it can be taken positively to be raised by someone who is not your biological parent, but has loved you and taken care of you regardless.
This form of testing also solves many disputes and can create piece of mind within relationships. References
Dna diagnostics center. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dnacenter.com/science-technology/dna-history.html
"Genetic Testing." National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. <http://www.genome.gov/10002335>.
LeVay, V. (2003). Paternity testing. Retrieved from http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/paternitytesting.html
Paternity tests for peace of mind." Child Support Analysis. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. <http://www.childsupportanalysis.co.uk/analysis_and_opinion/choices_and_behaviours/paternity_tests.htm>.
Sha, K. (2004). Understanding genetics. Retrieved from http://www.thetech.org/genetics/ask.php?id=20