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Figures of Speech

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Ian Fox

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of Figures of Speech

Figures
of
Speech are rhetorical devices that achieve a special effect by using words in distinctive ways.Used well, figures of speech greatly enhance your fiction, and can be a very economical way of getting an image or a point across, but used incorrectly, they will confuse the reader. Simile A simile is similar to a metaphor. However, here, a reference between two concepts is made by using the terms 'like' or 'as'. Cause she looks like a flower but she stings like a bee/Like every girl in history. - Ricky Martin Metaphor George felt as worn out as an old joke that was never very funny in the first place. Used for the purpose of comparison, a metaphor is a figure of speech that implies the meaning of an object with its reference to another completely unrelated object. The sofa is fertile soil for a couch potato. But my heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill. - William Sharp, The Lonely Hunter Personification This refers to the art of bringing to life an inanimate object, trait, or action, by associating it with a human quality. The picture in that magazine screamed for attention. The carved pumpkin smiled at me. Hyperbole A hyperbole is a figure of speech used for the purpose of exaggeration. It mainly forms the basis of several jokes, is used as a way of insults, or could simply be used to dramatize a situation, where in reality, the situation may not be that bad. I'm so busy trying to accomplish ten million things at once. - I'm trying to accomplish several things at one time. Your dog is so ugly, we had to pay the fleas to live on him. Metonymy Metonymy refers to the use of a phrase regarding associated concept, in order to describe the actual concept. The 'editorial page' has always believed...
This refers to the belief of the editors who write the editorial page. He writes a fine hand - It means he has good handwriting. Oxymoron An oxymoron uses a contradictory adjective to define an object, situation or event. A stripper's dressing room I'd give my right arm to be ambidextrous! Irony Irony refers to the use of certain words that actually intend to convey the opposite. Irony forms the basis of sarcasm, and of humor. It is also a way of expressing the ugly truth in a slightly gentle manner. Bill Gates winning a computer.
Situational Irony
(He is the owner of the world's largest software company.) In Romeo and Juliet, when Juliet is drugged, Romeo assumes her to be dead, and kills himself.
Upon waking up Juliet finds him dead, and kills herself. -
Dramatic Irony (mainly based on miscommunication and misunderstanding) Alliteration Alliteration refers to the repetition of any particular sound among words placed close together, in a sentence. These are mainly consonant sounds, but can be vowel sounds too. It is often used as a figure of speech in poetry. Don't delay dawns disarming display. Dusk demands daylight. - Paul Mccan Sara's seven sisters slept soundly in sand. Onomatopoeia Such words imitate the sounds made by certain objects or actions. The clatter of utensils. The flutter of birds. Litotes This figure of speech refers to the use of understatement, to affirm a particular situation or event with the use of a negative opposite. He was not unfamiliar with the work of Shakespeare.
He was familiar with the work of Shakespeare. Einstein is not a bad mathematician. - Einstein is a great mathematician. Anaphora Anaphora refers to a repetition of one particular word purposely, at the start of consecutive sentences or paragraphs. I'm not afraid to die. I'm not afraid to live. I'm not afraid to fail. I'm not afraid to succeed. I'm not afraid to fall in love. I'm not afraid to be alone. I'm just afraid I might have to stop talking about myself for five minutes.
- Kinky Friedman, When the Cat's Away - Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink ;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink.
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Rime of the Ancient Mariner - A figure of speech which expresses either more, or less, than it literally denotes.
When a whole is used as the part or a part of a thing is put for the whole Synecdoche "The world treated him badly."
The whole world did not treat him badly only a part. - The whole is used as the part "Twenty sails came into the harbor."
Meaning twenty ships came into the harbor. - A part is used for the whole a logical statement or group of statements that lead to a contradiction or a situation which (if true) defies logic or reason. Paradox "The following sentence is true."
"The previous sentence is false. What happens when Pinocchio says, 'My nose will grow now'?" an exclamatory rhetorical figure of speech, when a speaker or writer breaks off and directs speech to an imaginary person or abstract quality or idea. In dramatic works and poetry written in or translated into English, such a figure of speech is often introduced by the exclamation "O". Apostrophe "Where, O death, thy sting? where, O death, thy victory?" "Roll on, thou dark and deep blue Ocean -- roll!" Rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. Antithesis "Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful." "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more." An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference to, or representation of, people, places, events, literary work, myths, or works of art, either directly or by implication. Allusion "I violated the Noah rule: predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does." "I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father, Jor-el, to save the Planet Earth." Anticlimax refers to a figure of speech in which statments gradually descend in order of importance. Unlike climax, anticlimax is the arrangement of a series of words, phrases, or clauses in order of decreasing importance. Anticlimax She is a great writer, a mother and a good humorist. He lost his family, his car and his cell phone.
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