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WHAP Exam Review 600bce-600ce

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John Behnke

on 27 March 2015

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Transcript of WHAP Exam Review 600bce-600ce

Codifications and developments of existing religious traditions provide a bond and an ethical code
Judaism
- Hebrew scriptures
Hinduism
- Vedic scriptures
Buddhism
- Sutras
Ashoka
Confucianism
- Social harmony
Daoism
- helped develop Chinese culture
Christianity
- Monotheism
Roman/Hellenism
Belief systems affected gender roles; Buddhism and Christianity encouraged
monastic life
and Confucianism emphasized
filial piety
Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written systems in core civilizations
The number and size of
key states
grew dramatically by imposing unity on areas where there had been competing states
Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.
Centralized
Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
600
- 600
BCE
CE
Period 2
Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies
Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
AP
Medical theories and practices
Poetry
Metallurgy
Architecture
AP
Key Concepts
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Greco-Roman emphasis on philosophy, science
Regions where ancestor veneration persisted:
Africa
Mediterranean
East Africa
Andean areas
AP
Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments
Literature and drama:
Greek plays
Indian epics
AP
Regions where distinctive architectural styles developed:
India
Greece
Roman Empire
Mesoamerica
AP
Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires
SW Asia:
Persian
E Asia:
Qin, Han
S Asia:
Maurya, Gupta
Mediterranean:
Phoenicia, Greece, Hellenistic, Rome
Mesoamerica:
Teotihuacan, Maya
Andean S. America:
Moche
Persian Empires:
Achaemenid
Parthian
Sassanid
AP
Examples:
Regions where rulers created administrative institutions:
China
Persia
Rome
S. Asia
AP
Projected power over larger areas using a variety of techniques:
Diplomacy
Supply lines
Forts, walls, roads
Officers/soldiers from local population
Cities served as centers of trade and public life
Social structures displayed hierarchies from laborers to elites
Patriarchy
Range of methods to maintain production and rewards
Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial socieites in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas
Cities:
Persepolis
Chang'an
Pataliputra
Athens
Carthage
Rome
Alexandria
Constantinople
Teotihuacan
AP
Methods to maintain production:
Corvee
Slavery
Rents/tributes
Peasant communities
Family/household production
AP
Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta Empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation
Environmental damage
Social tensions
Economic difficulties
External problems
$
Deforestation
Desertification
Soil erosion
Silted rivers
AP
External problems along frontiers:
Between Han and Xiongnu
Between Gupta and Huns
Between Romans and Northern/Eastern neighbors
AP
DECLINE
Key Concept 2.3: Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange
Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eurasian Silk Roads
Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean sea lanes
Mediterranean sea lanes
New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange
New technologies:
Yoke
Saddles
Stirrups

Domesticated pack animals:
Horses
Oxen
Llamas
Camels
AP
Innovations in maritime technologies:
Lateen sail
Dhow ships

Exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, crops/animals, diseases developed across far-flung networks
Changes in farming and irrigation:
qanat system
AP
Spread of
crops
encouraged changes in farming/irrigation techniques
Spread of
diseases
diminished urban populations
Religious and cultural traditions transformed as the spread:
Christianity
Hinduism
Buddhism
Effects of the spread of disease on empires:
Effects on Roman Empire
Effects on Chinese empires
AP
AP
AP
AP
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Classical Period
Classical Empires begin:
India, China, Mediterranean
Classical Empires collapse
600 BCE
600 CE
Periodization
Rome
Greeks
Persians
Hellenistic
Qin
Han
Full transcript