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AP U.S. History: Chapters 23, 24, 25 Review

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Thomas Martin

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of AP U.S. History: Chapters 23, 24, 25 Review

AP U.S. History:
Chapters 23, 24, & 25 Review

Chapter 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
Chapter 24 - Industry
Comes of Age

The "Bloody Shirt" Elects Grant
The Era of Good Stealings
A Carnival of Corruption
The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1873
Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age
The Hayes-Tilden Standoff of 1876
The Compromise of 1877
and the End of Reconstruction
The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South
Class Conflicts
and Ethnic Clashes
Garfield and Arthur
The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884
"Old Grover" Takes Over
Cleveland Battles
for a Lower Tariff
The Billion-Dollar Congress
The Drumboat of Discontent
Depression, Deflation,
and Inflation
Ulysses S. Grant's popularity was due to his status as a military leader, and a distrust of professional politicians in the Reconstruction Era
Grant: unskilled, amateur politician with a narrow cultural background
Republicans nominated Grant in 1868; the platform called for more Reconstruction with heavy military oversight
Democrats agreed on their opposition to military Reconstruction but disagreed on monetary policies
Wealthy eastern Democrats wanted war bonds to be redeemed in gold; poorer midwestern Democrats (with more debt) wanted them to be redeemed in paper money (aka the Ohio Plan)
Democrats' platform supported the Ohio Plan, but the candidate (Horatio Seymour) spoke out against it
Republicans boosted enthusiasm by recalling violent memories of the Civil War
Grant won because of the recently franchised freedmen
The postwar economy had several examples of corruption, including railroad promoters, stock market manipulators, and bribe-seeking judges and politicians
James Fisk and Jay Gould had a plot to corner the gold market (1869); Fisk and Gould's plot made the price of gold increase dramatically
The Treasury started to sell gold to stop the rapid inflation, leading to the financial ruin of many honest businessmen (known as "Black Friday", Sept. 24,1869)
William "Boss" Tweed, a wealthy NYC businessman, used bribery and fraudulent elections to take $200 million from the city; Tweed's scam was stopped after the press released evidence of his corruption
Grant's administration was heavily corrupt
Many of Grant's supporters, friends, and relatives got government jobs
The Crédit Mobilier scandal: the Union Pacific Railroad company formed the phony Crédit Mobilier construction company in order to hire themselves to build railroads at federal expense, with little risk and high profits
The UPR company paid off congressmen and even the VP of the U.S.; they were finally caught through a newspaper exposé and congressional investigation
The Whiskey Ring scandal involved the redirection of excise-tax revenues to many politicians
Grant's Secretary of War William Belknap resigned after taking bribes from the suppliers of Indian reservations
People who were fed up with Grant's corrupt administration formed the Liberal Republican Party; they supported purification of Washington and an end to military Reconstruction
The LRP nominated Horace Greeley for president in 1872; the Democrats supported Greeley too
Republicans re-nominated Grant; therefore, voters had to choose b/w unqualified candidates
Greeley was called an atheist, communist, free-lover, and vegetarian by Republicans
Grant was called corrupt, ignorant, and a drunkard by Dem's and the LRP
Grant won; the LRP's agitation encouraged the Republicans to clean up the corruption
The Panic of 1873 was caused by overspeculation in railroads, mining, factories, and grain
15,000 businessmen = bankrupt, riots started in NYC, blacks were especially hurt
Debtors wanted the Treasury to issue more greenback (backed by credit) currency to relieve their debts
"Hard-money" supporters convinced Grant to veto a bill to print more paper money, and scored a victory with the Resumption Act of 1875 which pledged the government to a policy of withdrawing greenbacks from circulation and the redemption of all paper money in gold at face value
Debtors and silver miners then argued for the coinage of silver money to promote inflation
Grant's policy of contraction - accumulating gold stocks and reducing greenbacks - led to deflation and lessened the impact of the depression
The contraction policy also restored the government's credit, bringing the greenbacks back up to their full face value
The Republicans' hard money policy led to the election of a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874; in 1878 it led to the Greenback Labor Party
Democrats and Republicans had very similar opinions on many issues, even that of monetary policy; the parties were very competitive, however
Members of both parties were very loyal; voter turnout peaked at 80% during this period
The true differences of the parties lie in their ethnic and cultural backgrounds
Republicans supported strict moral codes and supported a governmental role in private and economic life; Republicans traced back their lineage to Puritanism
Democrats (who were mainly Lutheran or Roman Catholic) supported tolerance of differences, and did not support a public effort to establish a single moral code
Democrats' strength: the South and Northern industrial cities
Republicans' strength: Midwest & rural/small town Northwest
Freedmen & the Grand Army of the Republic (a fraternal org. of Union veterans) voted Republican
Both parties depended on patronage - promising jobs for votes
The Republicans were split on the issue of patronage; Conklingites supported the system, while Half-Breeds were not as supportive
This split led to division and deadlock within the Republican Party
Grant was stopped by Congress from running for a third term in 1876
Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, a compromise candidate chosen b/c his home state was the swing state of Ohio
Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden, the man who put Boss Tweed in prison
The results of the 1876 election were disputed in four states (LA, SC, FL, OR); the three Southern states sent two electoral returns - one where the Republicans won, the other, Democrats
A constitutional crisis occurred over who should count the electoral results: the Speaker of the House was Democrat, so he would choose the returns that made his party win; the Republican president of the Senate would do the same
The Compromise of 1877 contained:
Electoral Count Act: a commission of 15 men from the House, Senate, and Supreme Court would break the deadlock over the electon
Eventually, Southern Democrats agreed to vote for Hayes if troops were removed from the South
Other concessions to the South were made, like subsidies for a transcontinental railroad, but many were not kept in later years (end of Compromise of 1877)
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last attempt by Republicans to promote racial equality; failed b/c it lacked force behind it
In the Civil Rights Cases (1883) the Supreme Court pronounced much of the CRA of 1875 unconstitutional
After the end of military reconstruction in the South, Democrats quickly tried to supress the freedmen population
Blacks and poor whites became tenant farmers and sharecroppers; in the "crop-lien" system, merchants cheated the borrowers so that they remained in debt
Jim Crow laws: legal codes of segregation
Black voting suppressed by literacy requirements, voter-registration laws, and poll taxes
Case of Plessy v. Ferguson validated the "separate but equal" doctrine; however, African American life was unequal to that of white American life
Segregation in schools, railroad cars, theaters, restrooms
Lynching occurred towards blacks who asserted their rights
The great railroad strike happened in response to a collective cut in wages for railroad workers
The strike failed and exposed the weakness & disunion of the labor movement
Asians accounted for 9% of CA's population in 1880; they came to work jobs like digging gold and laying railroads
Some Asians left after they saved up some money; the ones that stayed worked menial jobs
Irish-born Denis Kearney encouraged people to abuse the Chinese b/c the Irish competed with them for cheap labor
Chinese Exclusion Act - 1882 : no more Chinese immigration
U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark: 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born in the U.S.
Idea of "birthright citizenship" extended protection to Chinese Americans and other immigrant populations
Chapter 25 - America Moves to the City
The Iron Colt
Becomes an Iron Horse
Spanning the Continent
with Rails
Binding the Country
with Railroad Ties
Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization
Revolution by
Wrongdoing in Railroading
Government Bridles
the Iron Horse
Miracles of
The Trust Titan
The Supremacy
of Steel
Hayes was abandoned by the Republican Old Guard; Republicans nominated James A. Garfield for president (because he was from Ohio) and Chester A. Arthur for vice president in 1880
Garfield won the election; he was energetic and able, but became bogged down in the political conflict b/w his Sec. of State James Blaine and Senator Roscoe Conkling
Charles J. Guiteau assasinated Garfield; Arthur became president
The assassination led politicians to reform the spoils system; Pendleton Act of 1883 made mandatory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to appoint federal jobs based on a competitive exam and qualifications rather than influence or importance
The Pendleton Act led politicians to look for money from large businesses
Republicans gave Arthur the cold shoulder because of his integrity
1884 - Republicans nominated James Blaine; Republicans who supported reform did not like Blaine and supported the Democrats (these Republicans were known as "Mugwumps")
The publication of the "Mulligan letters" hurt Blaine's image by connecting him to a corrupt deal involving a southern railroad
Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland who was known for his strong morals and honesty
Cleveland's past affair was exposed by Republicans
The election of 1884 was especially bad for mudslinging
Blaine lost because a Republican clergyman offended the many Irish American voters in New York, leading to those voters supporting the Democrats
Note: this subtopic was not required reading
Many people were concerned that the Democrats would use the patronage system to take back political control now that Cleveland had won
Cleveland believed in laissez-faire or a "hands-off" approach when it came to government regulation of the private sector
Cleveland caved to the demands of Democratic position-seekers
Cleveland was politically troubled by bills extending military pensions b/c he was a Democrat and not a veteran
Note: this subtopic was not required reading
During the Civil War, tariffs were raised to pay for the war; American industry had prospered
The high rates led to ridiculous amounts of surplus; Congress could reduce this by wasting the money on pensions and "pork-barrel" spending to draw support from certain groups like veterans
Or, Congress could lower the tariff, which industrialists opposed
Lower tariffs = lower prices for consumers, fewer monopolies; more importantly, a lower tariff would decrease the federal surplus, which at that time was so high it conflicted with Cleveland's small-government beliefs
The tariff was the first real issue that divided the parties in years (during the election of 1888)
Cleveland was renominated, Benjamin Harrison was the Republican nominee
Republicans raised money from industrialists and used it to pay off voters
Harrison barely beat Cleveland
Note: this subtopic was not required reading
Republicans, now back in the driver's seat, wanted to use the tariff surpluses and federal offices to reward their own party; however, they only had a small majority in the House, and Democrats planned on delaying them at every turn
Thomas B. Reed, the new Republican Speaker of the House, was known as a great debater
Reed used his power to bend Congress to his will; because of this, Civil War vets got more pensions, the government purchased more silver, and the McKinley Tariff was passed, raising the tariff rates of the U.S. to historically high levels
The tariff hurt farmers; as such, the Democrats won a majority of the House in 1890
The People's Party, or the "Populist" Party arose from the Farmers' Alliances in the West & South
Populist Party supported: inflation through the coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, goverment ownership of railroads/telegraphs/telephones, direct elections of U.S. senators, one-term limit on the president, more direct democracy, a shorter workday, and immigration restrictions
Populists nominated James Weaver for president in 1892
Strikes among workers and farmers in 1892 led to violent battles
The Populist Party attempted to appeal to poor white and black farmers in the South; however, the Democrats used past racial issues to lure the poor whites away from the Populist Party
The Populist Party reminded Southerners of black political strength; efforts to suppress black voting increased as a result
The Populist Party eventually became a racist party as well due to the suppressed black vote
Railroad construction became more widespread after the Civil War
Construction was costly, so government subsidies were required
Government received preferential rates on military and postal shipping
Towns that the railroads travelled through became bustling centers; those who were not connected by railroad became ghost towns
The South's secession broke the deadlock over where the Transcontinental Railroad should be built
Supporters argued that the railroad would bond the Union together more strongly
Union Pacific Railroad was hired to build westward across the Midwest; construction companies received federal subsidies like land and loans
Many UPR workers were Irish "Paddies" who had fought in the Union's army
Indians sometimes attacked laborers
In the West, Central Pacific Railroad started building eastward so that the two halves would meet near Ogden, Utah
The "Big Four" were the chief financiers of the CPR
Chinese laborers were employed by the CPR; many died in accidents
CPR workers had to tunnel through the Sierra Nevada Range, slowing their output
The railroad joined the West Coast more firmly to the Union, allowed for greater western migration, and began a flourishing trade with Asia
Four more Transcontinental lines were constructed by 1900
James J. Hill: great railroad builder (created the Great Northern Transcontinental line); educated farmers and imported bulls to assist the agricultural industry
Sometimes railroad builders overestimated the potential population of the area surrounding their railroad; this led to bankruptcy
The expansion and unification of older, Eastern railroads helped to fuel the success of the newer Western lines
Cornelius Vanderbilt: became involved with the rail industry, made millions by providing better service at a lower cost
The use of steel and the standardization of track size made the railroad industry more popular and affordable
Other refinements to the industry: Westinghouse air brake, Pullman Palace Cars
Railroads were the single most most important factor in industrialization after the Civil War
Railroads stimulated mining and farming
Railroads stimulated urbanization; now, the railroads could carry food to large amounts of people, and then provide those people with markets and raw materials
Railroads stimulated immigration
Railroads affected the environment
Railroad companies established time zones that modernized and standardized the nation's timekeeping
Railroads led to millionaires more often than any other industry
Jay Gould, famous for the "Black Friday" scandal, participated in corrupt railroad schemes
"Stock-watering": the practice of lying about the value of one's railroad and selling stocks and bonds in that railroad at inflated prices
Railroad moguls trampled on the public's welfare, bribed judges and legislatures, employed lobbyists, and cozied up with journalists and politicians
Railroad companies joined together to rule the railroad monopoly instead of promoting competition
Many Americans were initially opposed to government interference with the railroads b/c of their free market ideals
The depression of the 1870s led to more outcry towards the railroad companies, especiall by farmers and org's like the Grange
State efforts to regulate the railroad industry were stopped by the Wabash v. Illinois case; case stated that only the federal gov't can regulate interstate commerce
Wabash case led to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887: prohibited rebates & pools, required that the railroads openly publish their rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, outlawed charging more for a short haul than a long haul on the same line; also est. the Interstate Commerce Commission
The ICA stabilized the railroad industry and provided a forum where competing business interests could resolve conflicts peacefully
The act signaled the end of unfair, corrupt business practices and began a series of independent regulatory commissions
Liquid capital (money available to fund economic projects) was now readily available
Natural resources of the U.S. were beginning to be tapped
Immigration: plenty of labor
American ingenuity also played a role
Urbanization spread with advances in food storage technology and transportation
Important inventions: typewriter, cash register, stock ticker, telephone (Alexander Graham Bell, 1876)
Thomas Edison invented: phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, moving pictures, and the light bulb
Light bulb: changes human habits like sleep and work patterns
Competition was the main obstacle for businessmen during this time
Andrew Carnegie, steel giant, integrated his corporation (every part of the production process was done by his own company; known as "vertical integration")
John D. Rockefeller, oil company owner, used "horizontal integration" - joining together with other companies to monopolize a market (the joining of companies is known as a "trust" - formed to monopolize a market or fix the price of a certain good)
J. Pierpoint Morgan, banker, used "interlocking directorates" (members of his bank placed on the directing boards of other companies) to ensure that competition was limited
Before and during the Civil War, steel was expensive and not used on a large scale
The Bessemer Process was invented in the 1850s; it allowed for the cheaper and easier production of steel by blowing cold air onto hot iron
America was one of the few places where one could find coal (for fuel), iron ore (for smelting), abundant labor, and industrial know-how all in the same area
These advancements and resources allowed the U.S. to outdistance all foreign competitors and produce 1/3 of the world's steel supply
Carnegie and
Other Sultans of Steel
Andrew Carnegie was a successful steel producer; he disliked monopolies and trusts
At one time, Carnegia was producing 1/4 of the nation's steel
Carnegie was ready to sell his company in 1900; at that same time, J.P. Morgan - the financier of reorganizing railroads, insurance companies, and banks - got involved with the steel pipe tubing business
After tough negotiations, Morgan bought Carnegie's holdings for $400 million
Carnegie became a philanthropist
Morgan used Carnegie's holdings to launch the United States Steel Corporation - America's first billion-dollar corporation
Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose
The oil industry in America started when oil was discovered in PA in 1859
Kerosene was the first major petroleum product; used to light lanterns & replaced whale oil
Electric light bulbs replaced kerosene lamps; the oil industry could have diminished in America
The invention of the automobile (which led to the invention of gasoline) saved the oil industry
John D. Rockefeller came to dominate the oil industry with his company, Standard Oil
By 1877, Rockefeller controlled 95 percent of all oil refineries in America
Rockefeller eliminated competition by using spies and rebates
Other trusts formed for sugar, tobacco, leather, harvesters, and meat
The "new rich" began to replace an older American aristocracy of successful merchants and professionals
The Gospel of Wealth
Some plutocrats (controllers of wealth) believed that they were successful b/c of divine intervention
Many successful individuals believed in "survival of the fittest"
Some wealthy people thought that the poor were lazy and brought their own poverty upon themselves
The Constitution's clause that gave Congres the power to regulate interstate commerce prevented the states from trying to regulate the monopolies
Trusts used the 14th Amendment to prevent the gov't from stopping their monopolies
Government Tackles
the Trust Evil
Initial state attempts at regulating trusts failed
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890: banned combinations that were made in restraint of trade, but was ineffective b/c it lacked strength behind it and had loopholes
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act actually hurt workers by stopping labor unions from organizing
Early prosecutions of trusts by the Justice Dept were unsuccessful
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Act est. a new principle: private greed should be overcome by public need
The South in
the Age of Industry
The Industrial Revolution was much less effective in the South than in the North
The invention of machine-made cigarettes gave tobacco farming a boost in the 1880s
James Buchanan Duke combined his company and his competitors' into the American Tobacco Company
Henry W. Grady, editor of a Georgia newspaper, and others tried to get the South to become industrialized
Obstacles to Southern industrialization: railroad rate discrimination (North-bound trains w/ Southern raw materials were charged more), "Pittsburgh plus" pricing system in the steel industry
The South's most successful industry was textile manufacturing; tax benefits and cheap, nonunionized labor encouraged mills to be moved to the South
The mills gave industrialization to the South, but paid low wages and required long hours; however, many Southerners saw mills as a salvation b/c it allowed farm families to stay together
The Impact of
the New Industrial Revolution on America
Standard of living, wealth, and physical comfort all increased b/c of the Ind. Rev.
Urban areas grew due to a demand for labor & immigration
Jefferson's dreams of an agricultural country where the government had no role in the economy were dwindling
Older ways of life were lost; people now lived according to the factory's schedule
Women were the most affected group; the typewriter, the telephone switchboard, and other inventions created new economic opportunities for women; the "Gibson Girl" became the romantic ideal of the time period; careers often meant delayed marriages and smaller families for women
Class division sharpened; dependence on wages increased, so workers were more vulnerable to swings in the economy and the whims of their employers
Pressure for foreign trade developed
In Unions
There Is Strength
Workers' individuality was stifled; new factories depersonalized the world of work
New machines often replaced workers; in the short run, workers were hard hit, though in the long run more jobs were created than lost
An overabundance of labor meant lower wages
It was difficult for workers to protest in their own favor
Corporations often kept their workers in perpetual debt
The middle-class public ignored the outcries of wage earners b/c of the belief that anyone could make it to the top, those who didn't just chose not to; strikes seemed foreign, socialistic, and unpatriotic to the middle class
Labor Limps Along
The Civil War, draining human resources and increasing the cost of living, gave a boost to labor unions
The National Labor Union, organized in 1866, represented a major accomplishment of labor supporters
Black workers organized the Colored National Labor Union, but the two unions did not cooperate b/c the CNLU supported Republicans, and many white unionists were racist
The NLU argued for the 8 hr work day and the resolving of industrial disputes by an independent party mutually agreed upon (aka arbitration of industrial disputes)
NLU achieved in getting the 8 hr work day for gov't workers
The depression of the 1870s hurt the labor movement, but it still protested when railroad companies tried to decrease wages
The Knights of Labor succeeded the NLU as the defenders of labor; it began as a secret society, and wanted to include all workers into one big union; it was led by Terence V. Powderly
The KoL campaigned for economic and social reform like health and safety codes; they successfully campaigned for the 8 hr workday for Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad's employees, leading to an increase in membership to 750,000
Unhorsing the Knights of Labor
May 4th, 1886 - Haymarket Square incident: Chicago police are attacked after responding to a protest of alleged police brutalities; several died
Anarchists that may have had nothing to do with the crime were charged and sentenced, some with the death penalty
John P. Altgeld, the newly-elected liberal governor of Illinois, pardoned the remaining convicts of the Haymarket Square incident
This incident caused the Knights of Labor to lose popularity b/c now they were associated with anarchy
The Knights were also damaged by their inclusion of both skilled and unskilled laborers; skilled laborers left the KoL and formed the American Federation of Labor
The AF of L
to the Fore
Samuel Gompers was the most notable leader of the AFL
The AFL was comprised of several self-governing national unions
Gompers used a down-to-earth approach b/c he disliked socialism; he sought for better wages, hours, and working conditions
Gompers used walkouts and boycotts as forms of protests
The AFL was nonpolitical, although it did encourage its members to vote for certain people
The AFL ignored the problems of unskilled laborers, blacks, and women
By 1900, only a smal minority of working men and women embraced the labor movement
Attitudes started to change in favor of the rights of workers to organize, to bargain collectively, to strike, etc.; Labor Day is est. in 1894
Some industrialists began to bargan with unions as opposed to fighting them, but most continued to go against organized labor
The Urban Frontier
The New Immigration
Europe Uprooted
Reactions to
the New Immigration
the Welcome Mat
Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Darwin Disrupts the Churches
The Lust for Learning
Booker T. Washington and Education
for Black People
The Hallowed
Halls of Ivy
The March of
the Mind
The Appeal of the Press
Apostles of Reform
Postwar Writing
Literary Landmarks
The New Morality
Families and
Women in the Cities
Prohibition of
Alcohol and Social Progress
Artistic Triumphs
The Business
of Amusement
By 1890, New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had more than 1 million people; NYC was the 2nd largest city in the world with 3.5 million
Skyscrapers allowed for more people to live on the same piece of land; skyscrapers were made possible by the invention of the electric elevator
Electric trolleys provided transportation and allowed cities to expand beyond what a person could feasibly walk on foot
Industrial jobs drew people off of the farm and into factories
Life in the city (electricity, indoor plumbing, telephones) was very attractive
Department stores, serving urban middle-class customers, provided working-class jobs (esp. for women); they also showed the rise of consumerism and rising class divisions
Urban waste disposal became a major issue; other issues included crime and horrible smells
Cities were described as being contradictions
Unsanitary slums were another urban issue; they became even worse with the rise of the dumbbell tenement
Wealthiest people moved into the suburbs of the city
1850s - 1870s: 2 million new immigrants every decade
pre-1880s immigration: mostly from Ireland, Britain, Germany, and Scandinavia; typically fair-skinned, usually Protestant, most could read and were used to representative government; these immigrants fitted in well with American society, and many took up farming
1880s "New Immigration": southern and eastern Europe (Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, Poles); most were Orthodox Christians or Jews, were not used to democratic government, were often illiterate and impoverished
New immigrants preferred industrial urban jobs over farming
New immigrants clustered in big cities
The influx of these new immigrants made many Americans question their immigration system and whether or not these new immigrants could assimilate into American society
Influx of immigration into the U.S. was due to: overpopulation, industrialization, and unemployment in Europe
"America fever" encouraged many Europeans to come to the U.S. (for opportunity, wealth, or to escape harsh government policies); "America letters" = letters written by friends or family already in the U.S. encouraging others to join them
Profit-seeking Americans spread America fever throughout Europe for their economic benefit
Russian persecution of Jews led to their immigration to the U.S.; Jews usually moved to cities like NYC and were used to urban life; Jews had skills such as tailoring or shopkeeping that were useful in the city, but they were not accepted by many Americans and even German Jews who had come here earlier
Many immigrants had no intention of staying in the U.S.; 25% of immigrants b/w 1820 and 1900 returned to their home country after earning some money
Immigrants who stayed in America struggled to preserve their own culture
America's gov't system was unprepared for the massive immigration of the late 19th Century; the fed gov't did little to nothing to ease the assimilation of immigrants
Corrupt "bosses" like Boss Tweed became the "government" of the new immigrants
"Bosses" would provide food, clothing, jobs, services, housing, education, and medical care in exchange for political support
The country comes to realize how bad city life is, esp. for immigrants; Christian leaders like Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden wanted to use Christianity to turn the cities around; many predicted that socialism was the eventual outcome of Christianity
Jane Addams was a middle-class, college-educated woman who est. Hull House, a settlement house that provided services to help ease the assimilation of new immigrants into American society
Settlement houses became centers of women's activism and reform; Lillian Wald was another establisher of settlement houses
Florence Kelley was an activist who fought for women, children, blacks, and consumers
The urban frontier offered new opportunities for women; employment led to a larger social sphere
Nativism flared brightly in reaction to the New Immigration due to a fear of cultural and ethnic marginalization of Anglo-Saxons
The New Immigrants were blamed for hurting urban governments, lowering wages, and bringing political ideas like socialism, communism, and anarchism
The American Protective Association was a nativist group that used propaganda to keep Catholics out of office
Organized labor was an opponent of the New Immigration
Congress eventually signed a law in 1882 that stopped paupers, criminals, and convicts from immigration to the U.S.
In later years restrictions expanded to include other groups too
Urbanization posed challenges to the churches
Protestant churches suffered heavily from the move to the city; churches had become an amusement, not a duty
Liberal ideas came to dominate American Protestantism from 1875 - 1925; these new Protestants adapted religion to modern culture by rejecting biblical literalism and questioning the idea of the original sin
Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths grew greatly as a result of the New Immigration
By 1890 there were 150 denominations including the Salvation Army and the Church of Christ, Scientist (founded by Mary Baker Eddy)
YMCA and YWCA groups, combining physical and religious instruction, grew in popularity immensely
Old-time religion was hurt by critical publications
Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species declared that higher forms of life had evolved from lower forms through a process of random mutation and adaptation
Darwin caused a big stir when he proposed the idea of natural selection; this went against what many churches taught
Darwin's evolutionary theory split the churches into two sectors: a conservative minority who interpreted the Bible literally and would support fundamentalism, and more liberal accomodationists who incorporated Darwin's findings with their own religious beliefs
Public education continued to become more popular; many states made primary school compulsory, coincidentally helping to end child labor
High schools spread greatly during the 1880s and 1890s
Teacher training schools became more common, as did Kindergarten educations
Catholic parochial schools were given a boost by the New Immigration
The Chautauqua movement expanded as a means for educating adults
Cities typically had better public education facilities than rural areas
The South lagged behind in public education, with blacks being the most severely hurt
Former slave Booker T. Washington was a major proponent of black education
Washington believed that economic independence would be the ticket to black political and civil rights
George Washington Carver became a famous agricultural chemist and gave new life to the South's economy by finding new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans
W.E.B. Du Bois condemned Booker T. Washington for not doing enough to combat white supremacy
Du Bois founded the NAACP; he believed that the "talented tenth" of the black community should be given access to American life
Colleges increased in number after the Civil War
Higher education for blacks and women took off
Higher education took off because of the Morrill Act of 1862, which gave public lands to states to be used for education
The Hatch Act of 1887 gave federal funds to establish agricultural experiment centers in conjunction with land grant colleges
Private philanthropy also helped to establish colleges
Professional and technical schools also increased in number
Colleges before the Civil War stressed "unity of truth": the idea that knowledge and morality were unified
College reformers after the Civil War failed to preserve the unity of morality and knowledge; educators thus separated facts from values
Industrialization brought demands for practical courses and specialized scientific training
Specialization became the purpose of universities
Medical schools and sciences prospered after the Civil War; public health improved as a result
William James, a renowned intellectual, made a huge impact in the fields of philosophy and psychology with his writings
Public libraries grew in popularity with the establishment of the Library of Congress and the philanthropy of men like Andrew Carnegie
The invention of the Linotype allowed for more newspapers to be printed; however, journalism was becoing less hard-hitting
Sensationalism, or human interest stories, grew in journalistic popularity
Newspaper tycoons includer Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
Magazines provided good reading for the public; the magazine known as Nation (launched by Edwin L. Godkin) promoted civil-service reform, a moderate tariff, honesty in government, and other liberal policies
Other journalist-reformers included Henry George and Edwar Bellamy
Harlan E. Halsey was the most well-known author of "dime-novels" - paperback books written purely for entertainment, typically about the Wild West
General Lewis Wallace used his writing to fight against Darwinian skepticism towards religion
Horatio Alger wrote juvenile fiction novelsthat centered around morality and virtue
Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson were to become famous poets
Realism was replacing sentimentality in literature; American authors turned to human comedy and drama for their subjects
Accurate portrayals of contemporary life and social problems were popular then
New authors included: Kate Chopin, Mark Twain, Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, Henry Adams, Henry James, Jack London, Frank Norris, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and Theodore Dreiser
People like Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee Claflin (who believed in free love) went against established morals
Many Americans resisted the "new morality"; Anthony Comstock was their leader
The conflict between Comstock and the Woodhull sisters showed the moral conflict over sexual attitudes and women's place in society at that time
Economic freedom for women had given rise to sexual freedom, shown in increased divorce rates, birth control use, and openness on the topic of sex
Urban life was hard for families; stress increased due to separation from extended kin, as shown by increased divorce rates
Birth rates and family size dropped because large families were hard to take care of in the city; family members (even the children) worked in scattered locations across the city instead of together on a farm
Marriages were delayed
The new lifestyle also affected rural women
Women grew more independent in the city; Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a prominent feminist of the time, published her book Women and Economics in 1898; the book called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to the community economically
Feminists continued to fight for suffrage; suffragists created the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890
Carrie Chapman Catt, a new feminist leader, argued that because of urbanization, women needed the right to vote; because o her argument, women made progress on the suffrage front
First state/territory to allow total women suffrage: Wyoming
The NAWSA excluded black women because they thought it would prevent them from getting suffrage
Ida B. Wells inspired black women to fight against lynching, and to establish the National Association of Colored Women
Efforts by temperance supporters increased as alcohol consumption (especially by immigrants) increased
The National Prohibition Party (1869) arose, and was not a major party
Women entered the Prohibition arena with the organizing of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union; it was led by Frances E. Willard & Carrie A. Nation
Anti-Saloon League was formed in 1893
Statewide prohibition made gains
In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed; it made alcohol illegal
Other organizations like the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the American Red Cross formed
Many American painters made their living abroad like James Whistler and John Singer Sargent
George Inness, Thomas Eakins, and Winslow Homer were sme other famous American painters
Augustus Saint-Gaudens was a gifted American sculptor
American musicians in the 1880s and 1890s started to form symphonic orchestras
Black folk tradition led to jazz, ragtime, and blues music
Mechanically reproduced music (initiated by the phonograph) became more popular
American architects included Louis Sullivan and Henry H. Richardson
Classical architecture and artistic standards were revived by the Columbian Exposition in 1893
Vaudeville and minstrel shows were popular forms of entertainment back then
Circuses gained popularity (e.g. Barnum and Bailey's "The Greatest Show on Earth")
Wild West shows featuring Buffalo Bill and Annie Oakley also were well-received and uniquely American
Baseball emerged as the national pastime
Spectator sports like football became more popular too, as did boxing, croquet, and cycling
Urbanization had led to the rise of popular culture despite racial and ethnic divides within each city
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