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The Progressive Era: Part 1
Transcript of The Progressive Era: Part 1
By 1920 more than
of the population lived in urban setting
the shift changed Americans' culture and the quality of their lives
feared, urbanization brought with it
clash of classes
exposed the nation to the overcrowded and squalid conditions of life in urban tenements
mines, steel mills, factories & slaughterhouses
60% of workers in Swift & Armour meatpacking plants
16,000 of 23,000 workers in Homestead steel in Pa.
"All possible brainwork should be removed from the shop . . . not only what is to be done but how it is to be done & the exact time allowed for doing it."
Social Diversity in the Progressve Era
Traditional & Progressive
Traditional: teach elements of knowledge through an academic curriculem
Historical Immigration: (1866-1870)
of immigrants from
northern & western Europe
--England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Scandanavia, & Germany
New Immigration: (1906-1910)
of whom were from
southern and eastern Europe
--Itgaly, Greece, Russia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, & Lithuania
The Urbanization of America
Urban Population = 26%
Urban Population = 28%
Urban Population = 35%
Urban Population = 40%
Urban Population = 46%
Urban Population = 51%
Progressive: knowledge + physical, mental, and social training requiring an "
" curriculum that includes, in addition to academics, community activities, recreation, shop work and household arts.
Shifts focus from
ethics& social philosophy
1882: Chinese Exclusion Act: based on racist belief of Chinese inferiority.
"The Chinese are inferior to any race God ever made . . . [they] have no souls to save, & if they have, they are not worth saving."
"The New Collosus" (1886)
"Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to be free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me;
I lift my lamp beside the golden door
Certain racial groups were more evolved than others.
Would America restrict immigration to those "British, German, & Scandinavian stock, historically free, energetic, progressive?"
"Or by Slav, Latin, & Asiatic races, historically downtrodden, atavistic, and stagnant"?"
Madison Grant (1916)
"The Passing of the Great Race"
"The new immigration . . . contained a large number of the weak, the broken, and the mentally crippled of all races drawn from the lowest stratum of the Mediterranean basin & the Balkans, together with the hoardes of the wretched, submerged populations of the Polish ghettos."
1921: Immigration restrictions based on nationality.
1924 & 1929: Stronger national quotas; as much as 99% below earlier peak years
Industry creates business: trade, finance, & real estate jobs increased X 6
Age of Industry
Age of Agriculture
Mass-production & Technology
From 1870 to 1920 major new inventions appeared in the U.S. about every 15 months on average
Electric washing machines
Domestics = 39%
Manufacturing = 25%
Agriculture = 18%
Professionals = 8%
Office Work = 25.6%
Manufacturing = 23.8%
Domestic = 18.2%
Agriculture = 12.8%
American Workers & Industry
"[The machinist] has got no chance whatever to learn anything else because he is kept constantly at that particular thing and his intellect is narrowed by it. In fact he becomes almost a part of the machinery."
(John Morrison: Congressional testimony)
Immigrant populations in 5 major cities
Foreign Born White
At least 1 foreign born parent (1910)
2,185,000 4,767,000 374,000 417.000 155,000
781,000 1,928,000 111,000 131,000 4,000
705,000 1,445,000 375,000 107,000 4,000
208,000 375,000 47,000 46,000 3,000
44,000 92,000 1,000 2,000 100
2,000 6,000 100 15,000 100
78% 79% 78% 68% 7%
Major Immigrant Groups
Percentage of total foreign born population in 1920 in parenthesis
Progressives & The Gilded Age