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Transcript of Rubidium
Rubidium was discovered in 1861 by German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff
They were studying the mineral lepidolite using a spectroscope when they noticed a set of deep red spectral lines, which, with further study, were found to be rubidium.
Atomic number: 37
Atomic mass: 85.5 amu
Located in Group 1, Period 5
Reacts explosively with water to form corrosive rubidium hydroxide (RbOH), which catches fire and burns
Tarnishes when it comes into contact with oxygen in the air
Can form alloys with gold, cesium, sodium, and potassium
Hardness: soft, can be cut with a knife
Density: 1.53 g/cm cubed
State at room temperature: solid
Melting point: 39.31 degrees C (102.7 degrees F)
Boiling point: 688 degrees C (1270 degrees F)
It is malleable.
It is a good conductor of electricity.
Uses of Rubidium
Reaction with Water
Rubidium is used in atomic clocks, as it is useful in high-precision timing. It is often the main component of these clocks.
Rubidium is used in the manufacturing of photoelectric cells, which are used in automatic doors and alarm systems. In both cases, a beam of light strikes the photoelectric cell, producing an electric current. This current opens automatic doors and the disruption of it causes alarms to sound.
Rubidium is used in getters, which combine with and remove trace gases, in vacuum tubes.
Rubidium is used extensively in determining the ages of rocks.
Rubidium is used in fireworks because of the color of its flame when it burns. When Rubidium comes into contact with water, it reacts violently and explosively, producing a yellowish-violet colored flame.
Glasses and Ceramics
Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics.
The use of Rubidium in ion engines of space shuttles has been considered, as it can be easily ionized.
"Rubidium" comes from the Latin word "rubidus", meaning "dark red" or "deepest red".
It is one of the most alkaline elements.
Many years ago, it was considered a rare element, but recent discoveries of large deposits of it have made it the 16th most abundant element in earth's crust.
It costs about $25 per gram.
It is not found freely in nature.
This past September, scientists at Harvard and MIT claimed to have turned light into molecules, resulting in a lightsaber laser-like substance. The scientists pumped all the air from a vacuum and injected rubidium atoms. The atoms were cooled by lasers that dampened their vibrations. Photons were then fired into the vacuum chamber, which caused the rubidium electrons to jump to a higher energy level. The electron then jumps back down, releasing light energy.
Anna: did most of the research, entered the "Uses" slide into the presentation
Sarah: put together the presentation, researched history, and entered videos
By Anna Paddock and Sarah Frey