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UN

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by

Olivia Lang

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of UN

UN Peacekeeping successes
Bosnia
Haiti
BOSNIA
1991-1995
Historical Background
(1980) Tito dies
maintaining cohesion of Tito's leadership failed due to separatist movements + economic difficulties
Yugoslavia made up of great ethnic, religious, and historical diversity
YUGOSLAVIA
RELIGION
Serbs= Eastern Orthodox Christians
INTERNATIONAL TIES
SERBS= ties with Russia/Eastern Europe
Bitterness over Historic Events
(1389) Defeat of Kosovo

Croats + Slovenians= Roman Catholic

Bosnians= Muslim
Croats + Slovenes maintained closer ties with Western Europe
(WWII) Croatian Fascist atrocities against Serbs
War in Yugoslavia
(1980s) Serbian leader Milosevic promoted Serbian influence in the region
(1991) Slovenia + Croatia proclaimed independence in resistance to Serbian threats to envelope them in a Serbian dominated state
Bosnia-Herzegovina declared Independence + Serbia moved against Croatia, Bosnia, and Slovenia

Bitter fighting in Bosnia= worst atrocities of recent history
"ethnic cleansing"= slaughter and systematic rape of civilians
Both admitted to UN + Bosnia and Herzegovina
war against Croatia + Slovenia ended in a cease-fire
1 million Bosnian casualties
50, 000-60, 000 cases of rape
UN Intervention
(1992) UN sent peacekeeping force
UN Protection Force
(UNPROFORCE)

UNPROFOR
Duration:

Feb 1992-March 1995
Strength:

38 599 military personnel
Expenditures:

approx. $4.6 billion
UN Mandate
"create conditions of peace + security required for the negotiation of...settlement of the...crisis"
Why was UNPROFOR considered successful?
Established Security at Sarajevo airport
UN troops/observers deployed to airport-able to stop fighting around airport + reopen it for humanitarian purposes
Protected humanitarian convoys
Established a "no-fly-zone"
banned all military flights in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina, except for those of UNPROFOR
concentrated weapons in locations supervised by UNPROFOR
delivered humanitarian aid + relief workers
provided protection for civilians
protected convoys of released civilian detainees
vital part of mitigating destruction organized by Serbs e..g prevented attacks on civilian targets
Border Control
facilitated complete embargo on deliveries of weapons/military equipment to Yugoslavia
helped prevent infiltration of irregular units/personnel
authority to "turn back or confiscate personnel, weapons, or sanctioned goods" going in and out of the area
UN International Criminal Tribunal for the
former Yugoslavia
(1993) set up to investigate + prosecute war crimes that occurred during the conflict
Milosevic indicted-died in prison while trial was in progress
160 persons indicted-ongoing for another 35 persons
charged for breaches of Geneva Conventions, genocide, crimes against humanity...
Cease-Fire

(1995) UNPROFOR monitored cease-fire to allow peaceful negotiations to be launched
(14 December 1995)Peace Agreement signed in Paris by Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia, and Yugoslavia
UNMIBH
(1995) United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina
exercised range of functions related to law enforcement + police reform
organized human relief + refugees, removed mines, human rights activities, elections, rehabilitation of infrastructure, economic reconstruction etc.

successful conclusion of mandate-terminated in 2002
Haiti (1990...)
(1990) Elections
Haiti=a repressed and corrupt state
(1990) UN present to observe-ensure free/fair elections
Jean-Bertrand Aristide=new President
first free/fair Haitian election in 186 years

didn't consult Senate before appointing judges, appeared to condone mob violence, purged Haitian army's high command
(1991) Coup
Aristide ousted by military coup
had been "meddling in army affairs"
suggested that army didn't want to give up power in order to continue profiting from contraband-and narcotics-trafficking

opened attack on corruption, pressed reforms in army, and created a civilian police force
coup led by Raoul Cedras- head of the Armed Forces of Haiti (FADH)
became leader of new military government

Haiti under the FADH
led broad campaign of extrajudicial killing, enforced disappearance, torture, and arbitrary detention
massive campaign of sexual violence against women
notorious for collection/display of scalps and faces of its political opponents
founded by support of CIA

UN Intervention
(1993) Peacekeeping UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) deployed
originally unsuccessful: non-cooperation of military authorities
(1994) Security Council deployed force of 20 000 to facilitate return of legitimate authorities, maintain secure/stable environment/promote the rule of law
(+) developments
restoration of some measure of democracy
growth of multifaceted civil society
increased involvement of political culture based on democratic values
(1994) Aristide returned to power
2004 Coup
(2003) Aristide most likely ordered murder of important gang leader
(2004) National Revolutionary Front of the Liberation of Haiti began armed conflicts in Gonaives
fighting spread + insurgents took control of Northern Haiti

MINUSTAH
(June 2004) UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti -10 000 personnel
support Transitional gov't
insuring secure environment
reforming police force
aiding disarmament
maintain rule of law
maintain public safety
support election process
protect human rights.........

(2010) Haiti on track

still facing major challenges, yet major improvements seen
violence largely removed from police+ public security restored/crime rate decreased
free operation of media
economy growing
positive constitutional amendments
Earthquake
(Jan 2010) 7.0 magnitude earthquake
220 000 dead+ 1.5 million homeless
led to political uncertainty
blow to economy+ infrastructure
increase overall force of MINUSTAH to support reconstitution+ stability efforts
established teams to support humanitarian+ recovery efforts
Elections+ Road to Recovery
(Oct 2011) UN supported elections
Michel Martelly elected
step towards consolidation/democracy

(Oct 2011) partial draw down of mission's capacity
considerable strides since earthquake

UN Peacekeeping Failures
Rwanda
1994
Background on Rwanda
- Country made up of 3 ethnic groups
- The Hutu - 85%
- The Tutsi - 14%
- The Twa - 1%
- Historically, the Tutsi = upper class
The Hutu majority = lower class

- 1950s - Decolonization movement
- This sparked the Hutu political movement
- 1959 - Hutu uprising, hundreds of Tutsi were murdered and other fled to neighbouring countries - Uganga, Burundi, Kaïre (Congo) and Tanzania

-1962 - Rwanda gains its independence
- 120,000 Tutsi refugees


- The UN Security Council drafted resolution 846, to establish United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) to monitor the border between Rwanda and Uganda

- The Organization of African Unity (OAU) drafted the Arusha Accords

- UN Security Council established the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) - to oversee implementation of the Arusha Accords and the cease-fire, peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance

-Romeo Dallaire is appointed Major-General of UNAMIR

The Sparking the Genocide - 1994
The UN
Alice LeBihan, Olivia Lang, Zoe Shan
Rwanda & Syria
In 100 days, Rwanda saw the greatest slaughter of human beings since the Holocaust. Therefore why didn't the UN stop the massacre?
- April 6th 1994 - A plane carrying Rwandan president Habyarimana (a Hutu) and the president of Burundi (who were returning after peace-talks) was shot down by a rocket

- The event is blamed by the Rwandan media on the RPF and UN soldiers

- Most likely orchestrated by the Hutu extremists
- The crash re-ignited the war and sparked the Hutu extremists wrath of systematic rape and
murder of the Tutsi population
- The Interahamwe ('
those who fight together'
),
the Rwandan militia and a trained death
squad and the Rwandan Armed Forces
led the premeditated genocide.
The UN's Second Failure
Ethnic Tensions
- 1980s - 480 000 Tutsi refugees

- 1987 - the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPT) founded by Tutsi refugees

- Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana refused to negotiate regarding the refugees

- Oct 1st 1990 - RPT launches attack on Rwanda -
the Civil War begins
1993
January 22 1994
The UN's first failure in Rwanda
- A French aircraft lands at Kigali Airport, filled
with weapons and ammunition for the
Rwandan Armed Forces

- Romeo Dallaire is informed of a secret plan to use the weapons in a massacre of the Tutsi population

- He promptly requests the UN to seize them
- Request denied
1. The order for the weapons was made before the Arusha Accords
2. Weapons are from Belgium, France and the U.K - countries the UN deems to have good intentions
Withdrawal of troops
- April 6th, Romeo Dallaire requested for the UN to double the troops in Rwanda - denied, UN troops were not to intervene
- Could only use force in self-defense

- UN peacekeepers were targeted in the chaos, Belgium, France and the US begin evacuating their troops and citizens
- However no Rwandan's rescued

April 12 - The Security Council voted to remove 90% of peacekeepers, leaving only 270 UNAMIR soldiers and 450 soldiers under the command of Dallaire

The UN's Third Failure
Failure to deem the disaster a Genocide
"How many acts of genocide does it take to make genocide?"
- A question posed to US State Department spokesperson Christine Shelley on June 10th 1994.

- After the peacekeeping disaster in Somalia in 1993, the UN was hesitant to become heavily involved because of the risks of loss of life and money

- Declaring the situation in Rwanda a "genocide" would legally bind the UN to intervention in accordance with the Genocide Convention of 1948

- US diplomats were specifically not to address the situation as a genocide, only as "acts of genocide"

“Be careful… a genocide finding could commit
us to actually ‘do something."
- A US Defense Department Discussion paper

- The UN passes a resolution condemning the
killing but not stating the event as genocide


May 25 - Romeo Dallaire requests that the UN stop the extremist radio station
- The Pentagon refuses - too expensive and goes against Rwanda's sovereign right to control its own broadcasts

- Newspaper
Le Figaro
reports that the French government is still supplying arms to the country over the Congo border
Continued Frustrations
Resolution
- June 22 - the UN approves a 60 day French mission

- The 'Turquoise Zone' was established in North East Rwanda - neo-colonial interests
- The area becomes a safe zone for the old regime
- The French allow the extremists to keep their weapons

"[The French] refused to accept the reality of the genocide and the fact that the extremist leaders, the perpetrators, and some their old colleagues were the same people”.
- Romeo Dallaire
Steps towards Resolution?
July 17th - the RPF captured Kigali
The Genocide was over

- Soldiers and humanitarian aid rushed in from the international community

- Refugee camps were filled with a mix of victims of the genocide and the perpetrators themselves, all receiving aid
It is estimated that 800,000 people were murdered in Rwanda.
Syria
Civil War in
Background on Syria
-
UN ROOTS
Economic and Social Development
Securing Peace
Protecting Human Rights
War crimes and the Holocaust

The 1930s Great Depression
WWII and the failure of collective security
How the WWII and post-WWII time period contributed to UN development
Secure and Maintain Peace
Protect Human Rights
Promote Economic and Social Development
UN Predecessors
1865: International Telecommunication Union

1874: Universal Postal Union

1899: International Peace Conference held in The Hague
-adopted Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International disputes
-established the Permanent Court of Arbitration (which began 1902)
Several attempts of international co-operation were made before the UN
1919: League of Nations established under Treaty of Versailles post WWI
-“promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security”

January 1920: League of Nations holds 1st meeting in Paris (without US)

December 13 1920: International Court of Justice established in The Hague
League of Nations
January 1 1942: “United Nations” coined by FDR in the Declaration by United Nations during WWII
-26 nations pledged to continue fighting the Axis Powers

August 21 1944: Dumbarton Oaks conference in DC laid foundation for UN
-representatives from China, USSR, UK, US draft proposals

April 25 1945: 50 delegates met in SF to organize the UN Charter
-Charles Easton Rothwell leads

June 26 1945: United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO)
-50 countries sign the Charter at the Herbst Theater
UN Beginnings
Signature page of the Charter
October 24 1945: UN came into existence after China, France, USSR, UK, US, and a majority of other signatories ratified the Charter
Herbst Theater
Security Council
Structure
-5 permanent members: US, Russia (USSR), Great Britain, France, China
-originally, 6 non-permanent members were elected by the General Assembly for 2 year terms
-now 10
-represent world’s geographic regions: 5 African/Asian, 2 Latin America, 1 Eastern Europe, 2 Western Europe
-presidency rotates monthly alphabetically
-maintain peace and security
-most powerful
Responsibility
Rules

-5 permanent members can veto any measures
-major powers view veto power as a safeguard against combined smaller, less powerful countries
-veto cant be used in procedural matters, nor by powers that are parties in disputes
-absence from the Council doesn't, abstention from voting don't constitute vetoes
-recommendations made by Council are binding on the member states
-but veto power prevented UN acting in conflicts involving the superpowers (eg. Cold War)

General Assembly
-UN members fear US domination
-US government resents paying so much without getting special influence

-suggestions:
-base it on GNP with a maximum of 4% of the UN budget/state
-would transfer some financial burden onto small, wealthy states often needing UN protection (eg. South Korea, Kuwait)

-military peacekeeping operations = main cause of dire finances
-Korea 1950-1953 $200 million
-Congo 1960-1964 $400 million
-USSR refused to pay for Korea since it was a domestic matter and not a Council activity but an Assembly one
-carries out SC and GA’s wishes
-gathers data
-disseminates information
-monitors agency + commission work
-plans UN sponsored conferences

Secretariat
Responsibility
Structure
Rules
-manages administrative day to day business
-thousands of international civil servants
-head of Secretariat is Secretary General
-nominated by Security Council
-appointed by General Assembly
-Secretary General sets agendas, calls meetings, give advice, solve problems
-to improve living standards for everyone
-in the past, the focus was on economic issues related to health, culture, education
-with the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, more efforts are now being placed on social equality
-gathers data, disseminates information, administers commissions and agencies, cooperates with global organizations (eg Red Cross) and labour unions
-this council planned and sponsored the First and Second Development Decades
Ban Ki-moon
8th Secretary General
-mobilize international leaders in response to issues, such as climate change, economic woes, pandemics, food, energy, water supply management
-aid the world's most vulnerable
-strengthen the UN
The UN has 193 countries working collectively to:

Maintain international peace and security

Develop friendly relations among nations

Cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights

Be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations
UN Main Objectives
UN SECTORS
- Geographically - mostly desert, only 185,000 square kilometers of cultivable land

- Many different ethnic groups
- fought over by foreign empires for many centuries - each leaving cultural mark
- Population however is predominantly Sunni Muslim
- However also home to Orthodox Christians, Jews, Shia Muslims, Yazidis, Kurds and Druze
- Under the Ottoman Empire religious groups lived in their own neighbourhoods and enclaves in larger towns beside the Sunni Muslims

- After WWI, Syria became a French Mandate
- Hostility to foreigners inspired Syrian nationalism

-new members have shifted UN’s direction
-originally post-war reconstruction, now aid impoverished developing nations
-“one state one vote” policy
-“Uniting for Peace” revolution (1950) gave General Assembly power to act with 2/3 majority in peacekeeping decisions when Security Council fails to act (maybe because of veto)
-not mandated, only recommendations
-more just a world forum to debate global concerns
-addressing climate change and combating poverty
“We only have the planet we live on, and if we are to leave it in a reasonable state for the next generation, the quest for a safer, cleaner, and more equitable world is one that should consume us all,”
John W. Ashe
President of the GA's 68th session
-Chairman of the GA’s Fifth Committee
-President of the UN Development Programme (UNDP), UN Population Fund (UNFPA), UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS), UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
-awarded the Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (CMG) by Queen Elizabeth II (United Kingdom)
-Doctorate in Bioengineering from the University of Pennsylvania
2011 - present
Syrian Independence
1946
- After gaining independence, being Arab and being Syrian became synonymous for Syrian Nationalists

- Push for minorities to convert

- 1/8 of Syrians wanted to remain as they had always been
- Syria struggled to attain solid leadership
- 1958 - The army leadership pushed Syria into the arms of Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt - hopes for stability
- 3 and 1/2 years, Syria became part of United Arab Republic
- The union did not work, and Syrians were by themselves again in 1961

- Syria also struggled in clashes and wars against the Israel - beginning in 1948 with Israel's inception
The Assad Regime
- The Assad Regime strove to eliminate Syrian weakness and political disorder

- Hafez al-Assad became president in 1971

- Leader of the Baath Party
-
Socialist
- bridge the gap between rich and poor
-
United
- Under a modified version of Islam

- Assad was Alawi - a minority

- Turned to violence against protesters - Hama Massacre
Hafez al-Assad died in 2000
- Immediately after his death, parliament amended the constitution to lower the age of presidency from 40 to 34 - making Assad's son eligible for party leadership.
Bashar al-Assad
- Presented as a reformer

- His crackdown on protesters sparked the current civil war

- Began steering country towards tyranny
- Lack of political participation
- Severe police measures
Rising Tensions
2008
- Huge drought

- Farmers forced into extreme poverty and into overcrowded cities

- UN Food and Agriculture Organization identifies the problem and hands it to USAID
- "Beyond our capacity as a country to deal with"
- Aid was not given

-Peaceful protest in Daraa is quelled violently by the armed forces
2011
- The Arab Spring Uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia inspire Syrian's to oppose Assad's Regime
- Demonstrations for pro-democracy, the release of political prisoners and reforms to the regime.
- Assad retaliates with extreme violence, targeting civilians
Structure
Responsibility
Rules
-1 vote for each of the 185 members
-each nation can send 5 delegates and 5 alternate delegates
-almost universal membership
-except Switzerland, Taiwan, 17 former colonies
-eg Western Sahara
-Assembly session opens 3rd Tuesday of September each year
-working languages: English, French, Russian, Chinese, Spanish
-in emergencies, 9 members of the Council or majority of the Assembly can call a session in 24 hours

-GA has expensive programs which have almost brought UN to bankruptcy

-originally, nations to be assessed a percentage of their GNP, depending on their ability to pay

-US agreed to pay 39.89% of the original budget, until the other states recovered from WWII

-now, 10 largest nations contribute most of the money but have 7% of vote

-70+ nations contribute less than 0.01% of their GNP but have majority voting power

-US pays 25% of budget, Japan 12%
-supervises, monitors UN agencies and commissions
How does the UN pay for its programs?
Priorities
Background
Priorities:
Background:
-Bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University
-Master's degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at
Harvard
-Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, Chef de Cabinet 2001-2002 of the UN General Assembly
Economic and Social Council
Structure
-54 member nations
-each year, GA elects 9 members to serve for a 3 year period
-each member has 1 vote, decisions are with the majority
Responsibility
The International Court of Justice
Structure
-in The Hague
-15 judges elected by the GA and SC to 9 year terms
-judges from all different nations
-are to represent major legal systems of the world
-decisions based on majority
Responsibility
-to settle legal disputes submitted to it by States
-give advice on legal questions referred to it by other UN sectors
-when the purpose is to settle a dispute, decisions are binding, final, and without appeal
-in the case of advice to other UN sectors, actions are dependent on the sectors requesting advice
-additional judges (from unrepresented nations) can be appointed and have full voting rights to their particular case

Rules
Security Council
ICJ
General Assembly
ECOSOC
Secretariat
International Court of Justice
UN Financial Woes

-1962, International Court of Justice said all peacekeeping costs are legitimate, all members must pay
- Government violence is met by more rioting

- Members of the army began defecting and joining the protesters
- Form rebel groups (Free Syrian Army)

- In July 2011, accounts of the atrocities begin to emerge in international media - Crimes against humanity are being committed

- Assad denies the claims and blames the events on terrorism

- However Assad shut out humanitarian organizations and imposed a full media blackout
The Spark
Civil War
The UN's Failures
- The Security Council knew about Syrian protests quelled by government violence since April 27th 2011

- Intervention in a civil war (unless a threat to world peace) violates the UN Charter

- League of Arab States and the Gulf Cooperation were also hesitant to respond

- Security Council addressed the matter 5 months after protests started
2012


- The UN Security Council in joint with the League of Arab States appoint Secretary Kofi-Annan as envoy to Syria - Geneva I Conference
- Annan recommends a 6 point peace plan including all parties within the UN must work together, a cease-fire and humanitarian assistance

- A UN supervision mission (UNSMIS) - 300 unarmed members sent to help facilitate the peace plan

- Ultimately a failure - violence had escalated far past the point of negotiations
Deadlock
- After the failure of the 6 point peace plan, Annan resigned, disappointed with lack of political unity.

- Russia and China vetoed 3 efforts by Western Nations to condemn the violence in Syria and impose sanctions
- Syria - a major customer of Russia's international arms exports
- China relies on Syrian oil and has contributed military assistance


-judicial arm of UN
-is an integral part of the UN Charter unlike its predecessor, Permanent Court of International Justice
in the Security Council
Chemical Weapons
- August 21 2013 - Chemical weapons are unleashed on Syrian civilians
- Over 1,400 killed, most of the victims are children

- UN investigation confirms that chemical weapons were used but does not blame either side
September 2013

- Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon declares that the UN has failed the Syrian people

- Failure in "Responsibility to protect" principle of 2005 - To prevent events like the Rwanda Genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Balkans
Deadlock is Broken
- September 27th 2013 - Resolution 2118 is adopted demanding the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons by mid-2014

- The Geneva II conference is planned to again try and settle the conflict
- Plan : Establish provisional government with representation from both sides
- Review the constitution and legal system
- Hold multi-party elections

One step forward
...and two steps back
- However the 2 sides' main objectives are not in agreement with the Geneva II plan
- Assad's government will not stand for a shift of power
- The opposition won't negotiate unless Assad is gone

- Although chemical weapons have been removed and will be destroyed, Russia continues to fund Syria with arms
- Assad has escalated conventional warfare
Full transcript