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Module 1 Project Milestone
Transcript of Module 1 Project Milestone
The Social Cognitive Theory, or SCT as it was coined in 1986, "posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior" (The Social Cognitive Theory).SCT focuses in on our ability to learn from observation of actions and their consequences, otherwise known as modeling. While SCT is quite expansive in terms of what it conveys about human nature and learning processes, the core of the theory can be summarized by Albert Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation. Triadic reciprocal causation refers to how the replication of a behavior is dependent upon three determinate factors being in agreement (Bandura, 96). These three factors are as follows: personal, behavioral, and environmental. Personal refers to our personal assessment of mastery towards a behavior; while behavior refers to the reaction a behavior will have. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the environment's effect on the success of such a behavior. This theory is pivotal in Developmental Psychology.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Freudian Personality Model
While many of Freud's theories are very controversial in nature, I found his personality model quite informative and very perceptive in the way it translate the various mental mechanisms into concepts. Freud maintains that within the levels of consciousness exist our three personality components: the id, superego, and ego. The "id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality," it exists in the "unconscious part of our psyche " and exists mainly on
primary process thinking
, which is primitive and illogical (Macleod). In Freud's words the ego was: "that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world." In simpler terms the ego is the "mediator" between the impulsive id and the "external world" (Snowden, 105). The ego is the part of us that strives for a realistic approach towards our desires and goals. While the ego reigns in the id, it is not necessarily moral. It is the superego that manages our moral decisions and tries to move us towards our ideal self, often trying to influence our ego against the id's impulses (Macleod).
By Esme Yokooji
Real World Application
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a psychological theory developed by Abraham Maslow as a way of classifying human motives. Maslow was of the mind that people are motivated to achieve certain needs, which leads to a chain reaction ultimately leading to personal fulfillment. (Rekha) At the height of these needs is self-actualization: " The realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities, especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone" (Ehlrich) Before this ultimate need can be addressed Maslow realized that a series of four needs, both basic and psychological had to be met first. The foundational set of needs are our physiological needs include things absolutely necessary to survival such as food and water. A step above basic physiological functions are the need for safety, mainly concerning the security of our lives and our health. Above basic needs are our psychological needs, both social and esteem based. Social needs encompass our relationships to others whereas esteem needs center around our relationship to ourselves. Only after all the aforementioned needs are met can one experience self-actualization (Macleod). Maslow's hierarchy has been instrumental in humanist psychology and in various therapy treatments.
Maslow's theory has great potential for everyday application. In my own experiences with therapy, the hierarchy of needs has helped me evaluate what aspects of my life are lacking or need improvement. For example, when I have problems with friends or I fight with my parents I feel bad about myself; this shows how when one aspect of my social needs are left unfulfilled it inhibits me from achieving high esteem for myself. In day to day situations the hierarchy allows me to look at my life objectively; which is a great way to compartmentalize issues and manage situational anxiety.
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (pp. 94-124). New York, NY: Routledge.
Ehrlich, Eugene. "Self-actualization." Oxford American Dictionary. New York: Oxford UP, 1980. Print.
Hierarchy of Needs
Freud, Sigmund. (1923).
The ego and the id
. SE, 19: 1-66.
Macleod, Saul. "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." Simply Psychology. N.p., 2007. Web. 27 Jan. 2016.
McLeod, S. A. (2008)." Id, Ego and Superego." Simply Psychology. N.p., 2007. Web. 27 Jan. 2016.
Rani, Rekha; Kumar-Lenka, Sameer ."Motivation and Work Motivation: Concepts, Theories & Researches" (PDF). International Journal of Research in IT & Management 2 (8): 4–6.
Snowden, Ruth (2006). Teach Yourself Freud. McGraw-Hill. pp. 105–107
"The Social Cognitive Theory." The Social Cognitive Theory. Boston University School of Public Health, n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
1.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2. Social Cognitive Theory
3. Freudian Personality Model
Concepts & Theories Covered In Module one
Real World Application
The Social Cognitive Theory has allowed me to shape the way my younger sister learns. When she watches me exemplify good behavior, such as an early bedtime or healthy eating habits she feels motivated to accept these behaviors as things she should model. While I'm sure she won't always be so impressionable, I find this theory very important in establishing foundational beliefs, which happen to include the morality of an action. I feel it is important to impress these things at a young age and give her positive reinforcement so that she continues to implement these behaviors later in life.
Real World Application
While being aware of the id, ego, and superego can make someone more aware of their actions; I find that their existence allows me to temporarily disassociate from my actions and examine them from a purely neutral point of view. As someone who experiences anxiety I constantly obsess over my actions. knowing that on a subconscious level my mind already censors my impulses gives me the ability to feel less anxious about what I do or say. In a way mindfulness is a conscious way to examine the id, ego, and superego as it allows you to observe your thoughts and feelings from a distance, without judging them as good or bad. I intend to continue using mindfulness and the examination of my personality to cope with my anxiety.
Module 01: Theories and Personality
Module 02: The Human Lifespan
Module 03: Learning and Memory
Module 04: Thinking and Language
Module 05: Psychological Disorders and Treatment
Concepts & Theories Covered In Module Two
1. Identity versus role confusion
2. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development
3. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross' Stages of Grief
Identity versus role confusion
This is the fifth part of Erik Erikson's stages of psychological development, this stage is mostly associated with adolescence and if resolved successfully will lead to the virtue of fidelity. In this phase the current "psychosocial crisis is identity vs. role confusion, and is characterized by the struggle young adults face in forming social attachments. "(Mcleod, "Psychosocial Stages")The transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. " It is within this stage that the individual must resolve their "place in society." The end goal of this phase is a " a reintegrated sense of self, of what one wants to do or be, and of one’s appropriate sex role”(Bee). Given the connotations of this crisis it is unsurprising that adolescents react with social experimentation. "During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. Failure to establish a sense of identity within society can lead to role confusion."(Mcleod, "Psychosocial Stages") Role confusion if left unresolved can result in feelings of isolation and a lack of social skills. On the other end of the spectrum individuals can be negatively influenced by peer groups known as cliques, which can manifest as gang membership and juvenile delinquency.
Real World Application
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages
of Moral Development
Real World APplication
Elizabeth Kübler-Ross' Stages of Grief
Real World Application
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development can be seen as an adaptation of Jean Piaget's earlier work in the developmental psychological field. The stages (six in total) can " more generally grouped into three levels of two stages each: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional." (Crain, 34) Within this schema regression is very rare and the skipping of stages is impossible. Any information gained throughout the stages builds up and is utilized in later stages The pre-conventional stage is most "common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. "(Kohlberg, 15) Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences, and also exhibit a high level of egocentrism. Within this stage parts one and two of development occur, these sections concern avoiding punishment and "self-interest orientation." (25) Conventional reasoning is the stage with the largest age range from young adolescents and into adulthood; this stage concerns making decisions based on the: "morality of actions" in the scheme of social acceptability. Part three and four of development happen in this stage and deal with the influence the expectations of others have on decision-making and the growth of a larger societal conscience. Most people rarely reach the post-conventional level of reasoning because it deals with making choices based on their overall well-being of society and in the best interest of justice.
Me, Myself, and I
This model of coping with grief first appeared in Ross' 1969 book
On Death and Dying
. "The five stages, commonly known by the acronym DABDA, consist of: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."(Ross, 15) While the stages were originally developed to deal with the loss of a loved one, they were later dapted to deal with various situations involving loss or grief, such as divorce, substance abuse, etc. In the denial stage, individuals try to refute the reality of their situation; during the following stage of anger people "respond to their circumstances by lashing out at the people around them."(Ross, 25) Within bargaining negotiation between the individual and an outside force transpires. Depression then strikes the individual, which causes them to close in on themselves. Acceptance is characterized by an embrace of mortality and the true set of circumstances a person faces.
Since this stage of Erikson's development concerns adolescence I feel that this theory is most applicable to my life right now. I am currently at a crossroads, in a period between adolesence and adulthood, therefore it is very important that I confirm my place in society. In my earlier adolescence I was prone to joining sports and socializing with various cliques of people. I feel I will be able to successfully pass through this part of my development as I have a stable friend group and strong social skills. While the theory is rather general, at it's root is a highly universal truth about adjusting to new stages of maturity.
loss is something that is virtually unavoidable in life, as is grief. To learn how to cope with the complex and sometimes overpowering emotions associated with loss is an essential skill. Since death is seen as somewhat of a taboo to discuss in our society emotional processing of death is somewhat remiss. I remember being very young and confused when I first dealt with death, and since it wasn't something that was regularly discussed I didn't receive the closure I needed to accept the situation. the stages of grief are going to be more applicable in my life during the next decade as my grandparents near the end of their life. While I know that their passing will be very hard to deal with for my family and myself; the knowledge that their is a process to grief and the sadness will come to an end is a very comforting idea.
Personal growth is something that has always fascinated me. from being a selfish toddler to a more empathetic adolescent, I can very clearly witness a change in my behaviors and priorities. Kohlberg's theory is one of the most accurate regarding moral development as it recognizes that changes in attitude and behavior transcend cycles of age. His theory allows me to evaluate where I am on a more objective level, causing me to be more introspective and "ask myself the tough questions." As of today I am in the conventional stage of reasoning, and hope that I can one day free myself from the influence of public opinion and fully contribute to the ultimate good of society.
Concepts & Theories Covered In Module Three
1. Classical Conditioning
2. The Three Types of Encoding
3. Context and State Dependent Memory
Context and State Dependent Memory
Real World Application
Real World Application
Real World Application
When we hear the word conditioning, we usually think of Ivan Pavlov's experiment with a dog's digestion. The fateful experiment began with the observation of the dog's salivation levels when he was faced with food in several different situations; directly into the stomach and within room. Through the course of the experiment Pavlov noted that the sight of the experimenter who fed the dogs caused salivation, even if the person carried no food. "This meant that the dog had learned to associate the presence of the experimenter with food. The result of this association was salivation, with or without food. This is an example of classical conditioning." Conditioning is a learning process in which: "an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus." In the context of the experiment, the unconditioned stimulus was the sight of food, and the unconditioned response was salivation. The neutral stimulus was initially a bell, which after conditioning became associated with food, and caused salivation. The bell then became the conditioned stimulus, and salivation at the sound of the bell the conditioned response.
Although I don't plan to frequently implement classical conditioning, recognition of conditioning is an important skill to have. Many women become trapped in abusive relationships because they become accustomed to violence and begin to associate normalcy and even affection with their unhealthy relationship. WHile conditioning is not inherently moral or immoral, there are an abundant amount of circumstances wherein conditioning can lead to more than simple manipulation. While I can condition my sister into associating a bath with bedtime, it is equally simple for someone to use conditioning in a nefarious manner. According to the Geena Davis Institute for Gender In Media found that," in crowd scenes, women tend to comprise about 17 percent of any given crowd. . .this imbalance relates to and reinforces the way men perceive the actual number of women in any given room." Similarly, if there's " 17 percent women, the men in the group think it's 50-50, And if there's 33 percent women, the men perceive that as there being more women in the room than men.”For now, I hope to limit conditioning to the minimum of getting my sister to form routines.
Many children learn through a process known as imitative learning, wherein they learn from the observation of others modeling specific behaviors. This behavioral theory was developed by Albert Bandura, whose focal experiment sought to prove that people learned via observation. "He thought that if children did not know hitting was unacceptable and observed an adult exhibiting aggressive behavior, the child would learn to hit." Bandura put children in various social situations, those who learned aggression "hit the doll with a mallet, threw it in the air and then down, and kicked it." Conversely those who witnessed prosocial behavior treated the doll non-aggressively. At the core of observational learning are the concepts of modeling and imitation. Through Bandura's findings, patterns of abuse as well as research into those who experience and learned violence were pioneered.
I implement observational learning frequently in my everyday life. This is especially true In Jiu Jitsu. new moves and positions are first modeled by our sensei, and then we attempt to recreate the move with various partners. Eventually through imitation our mind and body begins to remember the position and then during sparring we can implement our new knowledge. Observational learning can also apply in the classroom. whenever students attempt to learn a new language the first several months are spent observing and imitating the instructor. IN various situations and throughout life, modeling and imitation serve to help us acquire new skills.
Many mechanisms of the mind revolve around the context of our situations and our physical and emotional state at the time. Context-dependent memory " depends on contextual clues which may be spatial (location), temporal (time), or meaningful." This is especially evident when you experience a sensation of déjà vu , like when you return to a place you've been before. Similarly, "experiencing the context assists with retrieval." For example, when you recall a specific event on a trip, you can also remember where you misplaced a piece of jewelry or clothing. State-dependent memory "relies on the experience of a similar mental state—either mood or chemically-induced." For example, if a person learns a piece of music in a happy state, they are more likely to recall and retain that music when they are in the same mood. These two factors have a large effect on memory retention and and the quality of the memories made.
As a prospective college student, learning how to study in a way that promotes long-term cognitive learning. Often when I study I implement practices that improve my retention, such as studying to the smell of peppermint or power posing while I review information in my head. By establishing standard studying habits I ensure that the context of my learning is constant. In doing this I eliminate distractions to my learning. I also resolve to study when I am in a focused and positive mood, this also helps me during the actual test day, when I purposefully pump myself up and try to be enthusiastic.
Concepts & Theories Covered In Module Four
1. Whorf's Linguistic Determinism Theory
2. Confirmation Bias
3. The Framing Effect
Real Life Application
Real Life Application
Real Life Application
Whorf's Linguistic Determinism Theory
The Framing Effect
Benjamin Whorf, a celebrated linguist, hypothesized that the vocabulary and structure of a language has an influence on the cognitive processes of its speakers and the nature of their society as a whole.This hypothesis was synthesized into Whorf's Linguistic Determinism theory, or simply the Sapir-Whorf theory. In this theory it is postulated that "the available vocabulary impacts what people perceive as possible," for example the Pirahã people of Brazil cannot conceive numbers beyond 'one and 'two,' the only numerical values with actual terms in their language. After two all "numbers are grouped under the term ‘many.’ " Native speakers when taught Portuguese, (a language that has a developed numerical system), were still unable count to ten (Bower, 1). Bilingual speakers are also subject to the influence of their respective languages, developing "hybridized identities” visible in their linguistic brokering skills." (Jiménez,14)The patterns within a language further elucidate the values speakers may have, in Japanese for example, there are over five different ways of addressing a superior, which implies a strong sense of class and position within the society. Conversely, English lacks a formal set of pronouns and sentence structures, yielding a society relatively unaffected by the superior/inferior dynamic.
Linguistic determination is something I exceedingly familiar with as a bilingual individual. The constant code-switching between Japanese and English has in many ways contributed to the development of a hybridized personality. Up until adolescence I was very rambunctious in every class except for Japanese, in this class I was respectful to an intense degree, and I subscribed to the most formal of addresses when interacting with my teacher. Comparatively, I would speak to other teachers with nicknames they had developed during the course of the school year. My interactions with fellow students changed depending on what aspect of my culture they fell into, with Asian peers I was a lot more subdued than I was with my English peers. Overall, linguistic determination is the aspect of social and personal development that has the most relative application to my life.
Decision making is such a pivotal aspect of problem solving that it merits three separate obstacles. Confirmation bias is perhaps one of the most nefarious of the three roadblocks to making informed and well-rounded decisions. Within
The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making
, confirmation bias is defined as "the tendency to interpret, seek out, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses, while giving a disproportionate lack of consideration towards alternative possibilities." In layman's terms it is a phenomenon wherein the individual actively pursues information that favors their view. Confirmation bias can manifest itself in a manifold of ways with varying levels of infamy. Giordano Bruno for example, was imprisoned and later burned at the stake for being a heretic. His act of heresy was his support of the "Copernican view – the view that the earth orbits the sun, and that the earth is not the center of the universe," which differed from the accepted view of the universe by the Catholic church. (Aquilecchia, 13) It was because of confirmation bias that the pope was unable to accept a heliocentric universe over the Aristotelian model.
As a prospective voter it is imperative that I recognize confirmation bias within my political decisions. At times I catch myself only absorbing liberal media and ideas, which doesn't allow me to objectively review the various aspects of the election, nor the policies that each candidate presents. In an effort to break from this trend of subscribing to information I find acceptable, I endeavor to consume media that differs from my worldview and ethical perceptions. Every once in a while I will watch a republican debate or read an article against immigration, if only to know that when I disagree, it comes from a place of information and conviction in my beliefs.
The framing effect is yet another theory surrounding "cognitive bias," in which "people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented." (Plous, 1993) The framing effect has become a large part of advertising and is a relatively pervasive aspect of our political system. In the Tversky and Kahneman study, individuals were presented with situations that dealt with saving lives. Tversky and Kahneman found that the majority of their subjects chose Program A (72%); concluding that "the prospect of saving 200 lives" was more promising to individuals "than a one-in-three chance of saving 600 lives."
Last week I attempted to buy a new toothpaste, which wasn't a particularly dire situation, but I was determined to find the best option for my teeth. I found that various companies used similar language and statistics when advertising for their product. Aquafresh and Colgate used a similar study of dentists, claiming four out of every five dentists recommended their product. Objectively this sounds like a very favorable review of a toothpaste. when you think about the statistic and consider how many were involved in the study, it becomes less valuable. the claim of four out of every five dentists becomes almost laughable when you consider that feasibly only five dentists could have participated in the whole "study." Even if it was only toothpaste, it was a victory for the consumer, and we all know how infrequent those are.