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Russia in Revolution: The Role of the Individual in History

GCSE Year 11 Depth Study, Russia 1905-1924
by

David Rawlings

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of Russia in Revolution: The Role of the Individual in History

Russia In Revolution
The Role of the Individual in History
Fidel Castro
Which of these is the most significant and why?
Which of these is the most significant and why?
WHO HAVE BEEN SOME OF THE KEY INDIVIDUALS IN 20th CENTURY HISTORY?
Look at the following images and in pairs try to identify an individual and explain his/her importance.
Think back to our criteria for significance that we have discussed to help you to decide. Do they meet the criteria?
Take a vote on who you consider the most significant.
Who else would you add to this selection and why?
CRITERIA FOR SIGNIFICANCE.
HOW MANY OF THESE DID YOU COME UP WITH?
What impact did they have in their lifetime?
What has been their longer term impact?
Has their impact been in one area or on one event, or one country or the world?
Has their impact been military, political, social, cultural?
How many people have been affected by them?
Has the impact been for good or ill?
Would there have been similar changes without this individual?
How important were other factors in bringing change? E.g. other individuals, other organisations, economic, political or social trends.
Has their contribution to History been exaggerated or altered due to later events or the motives of others?
WHAT MAKES AN INDIVIDUAL SIGNIFICANT IN HISTORY?
In pairs draw up a list of criteria for measuring significance of individuals.
Compare these to the rest of the class and try to identify those that you agree on.
In pairs make a list of your five top heroes
You have to agree on five and be ready to explain why you think they should be on your list.
Who is your hero?
FIDEL CASTRO
HERO OR VILLAIN?

What makes a hero?
This topic is all about the significance of the individual in history.
What reputation does he have?
Has it changed?
Is opinion divided?
Amy Winehouse
What reputation does he have?
Has it changed?
Is opinion divided?
What reputation do you have?
Has it changed?
Is opinion divided, at school or at home?
You
In History these reputations are called interpretations!
Interpretations - Hero or Villain?
Tony Blair
Interpretation
INTERPRETATIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS
Think back to your work on Castro and Cuba.
Who would consider him to be a hero and who would consider him to be a villain?

Watch video 481 and try to make a note of evidence you could use to support both views.
Why are there different views of Castro’s contribution to History?
In pairs, write two 'tweet' interpretations about Castro:
1. An American interpretation;
2. A Soviet interpretation.
Success criteria:
140 characters (letters, punctuation and spaces);
views should differ;
5 minutes.
K: Differing opinions on Castro
U: That historians disagree
S: Interpretations
Learning Objectives
#Castro
#Interpretation
#Hero / #Villain
@Cubafeeds
@PartidoPCC
When evaluating a source what do you need to take into consideration?
Give the source a
PROD
Pr
ovenance - who wrote it? where was it published?
O
wn knowledge - what do I know about that is relevant to this source?
D
etail - what the source say or show me?
Task:
Identify the interpretation of Castro in each source and show what evidence it uses to substantiate that opinion.
Is it for/against Castro?
What argument does the source give?
What evidence is there for this?
Evaluate the Sources!
K: Differing opinions on Castro
U:
PROD
S: Source analysis
Learning Objectives

To what extent will Castro be remembered as a dictator? [10 marks]

Success Criteria:
Three paragraphs
Two sided answer
Evidence to support both sides
Overall judgement on the questio
n
'Condemn me, it does not matter: history will absolve me.' Fidel Castro
Pусская Pеволюция
Learning Objectives:

Know: An introduction to the Bolsheviks.
Understand: Some Bolshevik aims for Russia.
Skills: Russian translation.
Can you translate these words?

Владимир Ленин
Леон Тротский
Большевик
Starter
In the early hours of October 26, 1917 (Russian Calendar) the Second Congress of the Soviets adopted a proclamation drafted by Lenin which declared the Provisional Government overthrown and laid out the new soviet government's program:

an immediate
armistice
"on all fronts,"
transfer of
land
to peasant committees, workers' control over production,
bread
to the cities,
and the right of self-determination to all nations inhabiting Russia.

That very evening the Congress met for a second time and took three actions: decrees on peace and land, and the formation of a new government.
1. Translate the title and points 2, 6 & 9. Use this list of Russian words to help you:
2. What do you think were the aims of the Bolsheviks?
Tasks:
Can you translate this sentence?

Истори ис аусом!
1. Write your own name in Russian.
2. Work out your patronymic - this is your middle name, you take your father's name and add -ich for a boy or -ichna for a girl.
Translation
boi - fight
za - for
dovriya - alliances
Kapitalist - capitalist
vintovku - rifle
nakanun - don't loose
ruku - hand
spat - sleep
rabochi - workers
bdnyak - poor people
mirovo voctaniya - worldly rights
dovolno - enough
KEQ: What was the role of Lenin and Trotsky in the Bolshevik revolution?
In September 1917 the provisional government was failing. The Bolsheviks were promising the people what they wanted most - bread, peace and land.
Lenin's April Theses (NESS):

No co-operation with Provisional Government
End to war
Sharing out of land
Soviets to take power
Learning Objectives:

Know: Lenin's April Theses and Bolshevik revolution.
Understand: The role of Lenin and Trotsky.
Skills: Judging the role of the individual.
Task:
In pairs work through ACTIVITY on p.315.

1. Using sources 3-5 add extra detail to the profile of Lenin.
2. Using sources 6-8 add extra detail to the profile of Lenin.
Homework:
Questions 2 to 7 in red workbook p.11-12.
What does NESS stand for?
How important was the war to the collapse of the Tsarist government?
Tsar Nicholas II
Task:
Identify 4 sources in your booklet that discuss the impact of the First World War.

Make MOD notes on each source.

15minutes
Opinion Line
Unimportant
Important
World War One
Learning Intentions

Bronze
: Use sources to support a viewpoint.

Silver
: Explain why sources support viewpoint, looking at their provenance.

Gold
: Evaluate sources to show why the viewpoint they support is more or less valid.
Do you think the war was the most important reason for the end of the Tsar?

On the post-it.
Add some evidence from a source that supports your answer to this question.
Write your name

5 minutes
Why did the Provisional Government fail?
Bolshevik Revolution
Factors that caused revolution...
Title: Why did the Provisional Government fail?
Task:

You are a newspaper reporter in Russia, 1917.

Create a newspaper article to explain the Bolshevik revolution.

You need to include the factors that led to the revolution:
Land, Lenin, Food, Kornilov, War
Think about the importance of each.
Chronology Challenge!
Match dates with events:
September 1917
November 1917
15 March 1917
March 1917 - October 1917
1914 - 1917
March - October 1917
March 1917
Bread!
Peace!
Land!
Vive la Revolution!
What is a revolution?
Know:
World revolutions
Understand:
How to define a revolution; what is important in a revolution
Skills:
Groupwork; significance
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe features of a revolution.
Silver:
identify common features of a revolution.
Gold:
judge the significance of causes of a revolution.
Learning Outcomes
Your task today is to research and prepare a 5 minute presentation on a revolution.
The aim is to compare world revolutions and identify common causes.
Task
Success Criteria
One: Use information to identify and explain the causes of the revolution;
Two: Identify key individuals involved in the revolution;
Three: Make a judgement on the most important cause of the revolution and explain your judgement;
All group members should be involved in the presentation.
Evaluate the presentations!
Did they identify and explain the causes of the revolution?
Did they identify key individuals involved?
Have they made a judgement on the most important cause?
How successful were they?
What factors are common to all revolutions?
How important is a leading individual?
Work through the questions on pp.3-4 and complete worksheet 12.3
How did the Tsar govern Russia?
How did the Tsar govern Russia and what problems did it cause?
Odd one Out
Russian Society
Review your Answers
How did the Tsar survive the 1905 revolution?
Know:
The events of the 1905 revolution
Understand:
How the Tsar survived the revolution
Skills:
PROD - source skills
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe the 1905 revolution.
Silver:
use PROD to evaluate a source.
Gold:
evaluate and compare a range of sources.
Learning Outcomes
Tsar
Nobles & Church
Middle class landowners & Cossacks
Peasants
80% of population
Who goes where?
The Russian feudal system under the Tsars
Church
Tsar
Cossacks (middle class)
Peasants
Russia under the Tsars
The
1905 Revolution
In 1903 the government relaxed censorship laws - which led to an explosion of anti-government pamphlets, books and newspapers.
In 1904 Russia lost a war with Japan, this was a humiliating defeat and led to anti-government feelings.
These tensions came to a head on Sunday 22 January 1905.
A crowd of 200,000 protestors, led by Father Gapon - a priest, marched to the Winter Palace with a petition for the Tsar to sign
The Tsar had left the palace at the first sign of trouble and the protestors were met by his personal Cossack bodyguard.
The Cossacks opened fire on the protestors and more than 200 were killed.
As a consequence:
Sailors on the Battleship Potemkin mutinied
Workers in the Putilov factory in St. Petersburg went on strike
Lenin and Trotsky returned from exile to join the revolution
Soviets (councils) were formed in towns
Peasants murdered their landlords and took their land
P -
provenance, i.e. who, what, when, where, why?
R -
reliability, can I trust it?
O -
own knowledge, does it agree with what I know from other sources?
D -
what does it say? i.e. quote from the source.
PROD the source
So, why did the Tsar survive the revolution?
Which was the key reason?
How did you test the sources to find out the key reason?
How did the Tsar survive the 1905 revolution?
DEBATE
How do these images explain events of the 1905 revolution?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Know:
The events of the 1905 revolution
Understand:
How the Tsar survived the revolution
Skills:
Debate - two sided argument
Learning Objectives
In his October Manifesto the
Tsar offered the people a Duma
(an elected parliament), the right to free speech and the right to form political parties. In November, he announced further concessions and financial help for peasants. This divided his opponents. The middle-class liberals were delighted, but the revolutionary groups were suspicious. In the end, they were proved right in not trusting the Tsar. While his opponents debated what to do next, the
Tsar made peace with Japan and brought his best troops back to western Russia to crush the revolt. Rebellions in the countryside were ruthlessly put down.
In December 1905 leaders of the
St Petersburg and Moscow soviets were arrested and exiled
to Siberia. In Moscow this led to serious fighting in the streets, but the strikers were no match for the army. By March 1906 the revolution had been completely crushed and the revolutionary leaders were either dead, exiled or in hiding abroad. It was clear that no revolution would succeed as long as the army stayed loyal to the Tsar.
In May 1906 the Tsar underlined his victory by introducing the Fundamental Laws. These Laws agreed to the existence of the Duma, but they put so many limitations on its powers that it could do virtually nothing.
Duma (government)
Army - crush rebellions
Exile & execute leaders
3 Reasons:
The aim of today's lesson is to debate the reasons why the Tsar survived the 1905 revolution.
Which was the most important and why?

Task 1.
In your book, explain why each of these helped the Tsar to keep control:
Duma (government)
Army - crush rebellions
Exile & execution of ringleaders
Carrot & Stick
You have 10 minutes.
Task 2.

In pairs, decide which factor was more important in helping the Tsar to keep control - Duma, Army or Exile?
Write down as many reasons as possible to support your opinion.
DEBATE
Join with other pairs with your opinion.

Rules:
Hold up your sign to be recognised (speak).
Hold up your sign to counter another group.
You are aiming to win the debate, by proving to me that your opinion is the correct one.
You must get involved in the debate!
Review you debating skills:

How good were you at proving your point?
Could you counter another argument?

As a group, discuss what you did well and what you could improve next time.
Know:
The roles of Stolypin, Tsar Nicholas II and Rasputin after the 1905 revolution
Understand:
The significance of each individual
Skills:
Market stall; role-play
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe Rasputin, Stolypin & Tsar Nicholas II.
Silver:
explain the importance of each individual.
Gold:
evaluate and compare their importance based on historical evidence.
Learning Outcomes
How did the Tsar survive the 1905 revolution?
Recap
Carrot
Stick
With the person next to you come up with 3 reasons...
How was Russia governed, 1905-1914?
You have been given one of three important individuals in the running of Russia from 1905-1914:
Tsar Nicholas II
Rasputin
Peter Stolypin
How was Russia governed, 1905-1914?
TASK:
Write notes on your individual.
You should include:
What was their role? e.g. Prime Minister
What were their successes? And why?
What were their failures? And why?
How significant were they in the rule of Russia?
You are now an expert on either Rasputin, Stolypin or Tsar Nicholas II.
Now you must find out about the other key individuals.
Find someone who has studied one of the others.
You have 5 minutes to teach each other the key details about the individual.
MARKET-STALL
10 minutes
Rasputin
Tsar Nicholas II
Stolypin
How well was Russia governed by 1914?
HOT SEAT
TASK: Think of a question you would like to ask each of these characters?
Task A:
Use p.307 to help you complete worksheet 12.5.
How well was Russia governed by 1914?
Task B:
Now use your judgements on how well Russia was governed in 1914 to create a
bar-chart
.
5
4
3
2
1
0
Improving the lives of people
Building up agriculture and industry
Listening and responding to the population
Running the country efficiently
Defending the country
What happened to Russia in WW1?
Who's the odd-one-out?
Match these events to the correct date:
1914
29th August 1914
1915
September 1915
June 1916
Archduke Franz-Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary is shot. Russia joins the war allied to Britain and France. There are 6.5m Russian soldiers but only 4.5m rifles.
50,000 Russian soldiers are killed in the Battle of Tannenberg. 92,000 are taken prisoner.
By now Russia has suffered 2million casualties.
The Tsar replaces Grand-Duke Nikolai as commander of the army. His fate is now linked to the success of the armed forces.
A further 1million casualties are lost and Russian soldiers begin to desert the army.
"War is the locomotive of History."
Leon Trotsky
Why?
Why was the March 1917 revolution successful?
Know:
The events of the March 1917 revolution
Understand:
The long & short term causes of the revolution
Skills:
Knowledge & understanding
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe the March 1917 revolution.
Silver:
explain causes of the revolution using historical evidence.
Gold:
compare a range of causes and identify their significance, based on historical evidence.
Learning Outcomes
If this is the answer, what is the question?

8-9million
Triple Entente
Tsar Nicholas
1915
Battle of Tannenberg
6.5 million, but only 4.5 million
Recap: WW1
Write down questions for which these could be the answers in the back of your book.
TASK 1
Add to the timeline on p.9 of your workbooks to explain what happened during the March Revolution.
Title: Why was the March 1917 revolution successful?
Moscow Never Sleeps
Why was the March 1917 revolution successful?
DEBATE
Know:
The events of the 1917 revolution
Understand:
Why the Tsar didn't survive the revolution
Skills:
Debate - two sided argument
Learning Objectives
The aim of today's lesson is to debate the reasons why the 1917 revolution was successful.
Which was the most important and why?

Duma (government)
Army
Underlying factors
DEBATE
Join with other pairs with your opinion.

Rules:
Hold up your sign to be recognised (speak).
Hold up your sign to counter another group.
You are aiming to win the debate, by proving to me that your opinion is the correct one.
You must get involved in the debate!
Review you debating skills:

How good were you at proving your point?
Could you counter another argument?

As a group, discuss what you did well and what you could improve next time.
1917 - A Year of Revolution!
Know:
The events of 1917
Understand:
The chronological sequence of revolutionary events
Skills:
Knowledge & understanding
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
list events of 1917.
Silver:
explain events of 1917 in chronological order.
Gold:
assess the significance of events in terms of their affect on the two revolutions.
Learning Outcomes
Task:
Construct a timeline of 1917.
Timeline - Success Criteria:

Events to include - Abdication of the Tsar; Feb./March revolution; takeover of Provisional Gov.; Provisional Gov's decision about the war; return of Lenin; 'July Days'; October/November revolution.
Think carefully about the significance each event, how did the event lead to a revolution?

Challenge:
Create a more 3-Dimensional timeline - where the more important events are in bold, or are larger.
Now assess your timeline!
Have you done everything you need to to help you understand this year of revolution?
Homework:
The Russian Revolution
First 45mins of video
Know:
The reasons for the Bolshevik revolution
Understand:
The significance of each cause
Skills:
Significance; debate
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe causes of Bolshevik revolution.
Silver:
begin to assess the significance of each cause.
Gold:
assess the significance of each cause and make a comparison with other causes.
Learning Outcomes
WW1 (for Russia)
Abdication of the Tsar
Bolshevik revolution
Provisional Government in power
Kornilov rebellion
'July Days'
August 1917
Task: Research factors that caused the Bolshevik revolution.

Success criteria:
Work in pairs, but make sure you get all the information down.
Designate which factors each person should look up.
Explain how each led to the revolution, e.g. The Kornilov rebellion led to the revolution because...
Now judge which was the most important factor.
War
Lenin
Food
Land
Kornilov
Bolshevism is a type of Socialism.
But, what is Socialism?
Who were the Bolsheviks and what did they believe in?
Know:
Bolshevik beliefs
Understand:
The political & social basis of those beliefs
Skills:
Knowledge & understanding
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe Bolshevik beliefs.
Silver:
explain beliefs, referring to the writings of their founders.
Gold:
assess the extent to which Bolsheviks stuck to their beliefs.
Learning Outcomes
Task:

Identify
three main beliefs
of the Bolshevik party from the writings of their leaders.
Title: Who were the Bolsheviks?
Success Criteria:
Make a note of these three beliefs and where they came from in your book.
Explain the reason for each belief. E.g. Bolsheviks believed that war, described, by Trotsky as 'the locomotive of history', would lead to their revolution because war caused hunger, poverty and desparation.
Task:
Create a Facebook profile for a typical Bolshevik.

Success Criteria:
Include as much detail as possible.
Who would they follow?
What are their likes / dislikes?
What status updates would they make?
Who were the Bolsheviks?
This exercise will synthesise your knowledge on Bolshevism and help you to understand what these people stood for!
We are going to attempt a practice Controlled Assessment.

This year it will be on the role of Rasputin in the failure of the Tsarist regime. (Remember the debate we did on this!)

So this is your homework:
1. Revise and research everything you can to do with Rasputin and the Tsar.
2. Identify any sources in your source booklet that refer to factors, such as Rasputin, that caused the March 1917 revolution.
Homework:
Bolshevik
Karl Marx
Socialism
equality
government ownership
REVIEW:
Come up with a sentence that includes these words.
Know:
key factors in the Bolshevik takeover
Understand:
significance of each factor
Skills:
Knowledge & understanding
Learning Objectives
Bronze:
describe Bolshevik takeover;
Silver:
explain takeover with reference to key causes;
Gold:
assess the significance of each cause for the takeover.
Learning Outcomes
Task:
Worksheet 12.10, work-booklets.
Identify and explain in detail 4 key factors that led to the Bolshevik Revolution.

Success criteria:
Use your source booklets to identify evidence to support other causes.
Find as much evidence as you can to support each factor.
Remember to cite where your evidence is from, i.e. who created it?
DEBATE
Lenin
War
Provisional Government
Trotsky
What was the most important cause of the Bolshevik revolution?
"The Revolution has often and widely been held to have been mainly Lenin's revolution. But was it? ... There were other mighty factors at work as well in Russia in 1917... Lenin could simply not have done or even co-ordinated everything.
Historian Robert Service, writing in 1990
Do you agree?
"The protesters were met by a regiment of soldiers and mounted Cossacks. Without warning, the soldiers opened fire and the Cossacks charged. It was a decisive day. An estimated 2000 were killed.

In his October manifesto the Tsar offered the people a Duma (government), the right to free speech and to form political parties... He made peace with Japan and brought his best troops back to crush the remnants of the revolt.

In December 1905 the leaders of the revolution were arrested and exiled in Siberia."

From a GCSE textbook by Ben Walsh, 2009
Who did what in Russia?
Autocratic leader of Russia
Prime Minister of the Duma
Could cure the Tsarevich, Alexei
Tsar Nicholas
Peter Stolypin
Grigory Rasputin
What 5 roubles would buy in Russia:
1917
1914
Two bags of flour
1/3 of a bag of flour
0.8kg of meat
5kg of meat
3/4 bag of potatoes
5 bags of potatoes
How would this affect you as a Russian citizen?
Which is the key event?
TASK 2:
Title: Why was the March 1917 revolution successful?
Use worksheet 12.7, p9a in your workbook to answer the key question.
Success Criteria:

Bronze
: Explains why each of the factors helped bring down the Tsar.
Silver
: Links and compares factors to judge which was most important.
Gold
: Evaluates the extent to which each was responsible for the revolution.
What does this tell you about reasons for the March 1917 revolution?
Lesson Aim:
Evaluate two interpretations of the significance of WW1 in the collapse of the Tsarist regime by assessing the supporting evidence.
KEY FACT
Abdicated - March 1917
Task One:

Why did the war affect the power of the Tsar?
THINK . PAIR . SHARE
Full transcript