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Bonding Concept Map

How bonding works
by

Morgan Hussey

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Bonding Concept Map

BONDING MOLECULAR GEOMETRY HOW TO IDENTIFY BOND TYPES Valence Electrons VSEPR Theory: "Valence Shell Electron Pair
Repulsion". This is the repulsion between electron
pairs produces shapes with electron pairs as far
apart as possible.
Lone pairs of electrons take up more space than
bonding electrons.
Molecules adjust their shapes to keep lone pairs
of electrons as far apart as possible from
bonding electrons. METALLIC BONDING IONIC BONDING COVALENT BONDING Based on conductivity, solubility, and melting point,
the type of bond a substance has can be identified.

Ex) NaCl
-high melting point
-metal and a non-metal bonded
-soluble in water
-conducts electricity when in the aqueous phase
NaCl has an ionic bond The outermost electron shell of an atom.
They are the electrons involved in bonding. the electrostatic attraction
that binds oppositely charged ions together. A bond formed by the sharing
of electrons between atoms. the force of attraction that holds
metals together; it consists of
the attraction between free-floating
valence electrons for positively
charged metal ions. IONS Positively or negatively
charged atoms. The goal is to have a full outer shell of 8 electrons-an Octet. Only occurs between a metal and non-metal with an electronegativity difference of more than 1.7. ELECTRONEGATIVITY The tendency of an atom to attract electrons in an ionic bond. Metals have a low EN while non-metals have a high EN. ANIONS AND CATIONS An anion is a negative ion and
a cation is a positive ion. Ex) F=4.0 and Na=0.9
4.0-0.9=
3.1 *Only occurs in metals
*Must be a pure metal, not a mixture *Only occurs in two non-metals NON-POLAR COVALENT two identical atoms are bonded
together and there is an equal
share of pull between the two. POLAR COVALENT Formed when two different
non-metals bond. There is
an unequal pull because
of the different elements. NETWORK SOLIDS All atoms are covalently bonded to one
another in a three-dimensional structure.
They have an extremely high melting point
and are very hard.

Ex) diamond (C) and quartz (SiO2) SHAPES -Linear
-Bent
-Pyramidal
-Tetrahedral LINEAR There are no lone pairs
of electrons and the shape
is in a line. BENT MOLECULAR
POLARITY This is determined by the
molecules' shape.
-Non-polar molecules are symmetrical
-Polar molecules are asymmetrical There are two lone pairs of
electrons. This causes the other
pairs to be pushed away. PYRAMIDAL There is one pair of lone
electrons left over, which
push away the other three
bonds. TETRAHEDRAL There are no lone pairs of electrons
and four pairs of bonds are made. SOLUBILITY "Likes dissolve likes"
Substances with the same
molecular polarities can be
dissolved in one another.
Ex) Water has a high molecular
polarity. NaCl also has
molecular polarity. It is soluble in
water because of this. COORDINATE
COVALENT BONDING Bonding in which both electrons in the
covalent bond are donated by the same
atom. This is how polyatomic ions are
formed. ALLOTROPES Different structural forms of
an element. They all have very
different properties based on their
structure and shape. Ex) Carbon. It's allotropes vary from
diamond to graphite to coal. THE END
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