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Sociology Ch 5 Socialization

Sociology Ch 5 Socialization
by

garrett munro

on 16 August 2013

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Transcript of Sociology Ch 5 Socialization

Ch. 5 Socialization
B. Piaget's Theory of cognitive Development (1896-1980)

i. sensorimotor stage
a) level of human development at which individuals experience the world only though their senses
ii. preoperational stage
a) the level of human development at which individuals first us language and other symbols
iii. concrete operational stage
a) the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings
iv. formal operational stage
a) the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
C. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (1981)
studied moral reasoning
i. preconventional level of moral development
ii. conventional level
iii. postconventional level
E. George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self
i.
The Self
: part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self image

II. Understanding Socialization
i. Basic Human needs
a) “life Instinct” or eros – drive for intimacy, sexual and emotional bonding
b) Thanatos – aggression drive, or “death instinct”
ii. Freud’s Model of Personality
a) id – unconscious basic drives
b) ego – balance between innate pleasure seeking drives with demands of society
c) superego – cultural values and norms internalized by an individual, conscience
iii. Personality development
a) id and superego in conflict
b) superego represses selfish demands
c) sublimation socially acceptable outlet for drives
1. The Family
1. Social Experience: The key to Our Humanity
A. Human Development: Nature vs Nurture

Socialization
: the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture

Personality
: a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and feeling

i. Biological Sciences: The Role of Nature
ii. The Social Sciences: The Role of Nurture
B. Social Isolation
i. research with Monkeys
ii. Studies of Isolated Children
iii. Anna: The Rest of the Story
iv. Case of Isabelle
v. Case of Genie
1859 study of evolution offered a Biological determinism
Behaviorism argued our action are learned socially: nurture (John B. Watson 1978-1958)
A. Freud's Elements of Personality (1856-1939)
D. Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development (1982, 1990)
studied difference between moral cognition in genders
i. boys have a justice perspective
ii. girls have a care and responsibility perspective
a) self is not there at birth
b) the self develops only with social experience
c) social experience is the exchange of symbols
d) seeking meaning leads people to imagine other peoples intentions
e) understanding peoples intentions requires imagining the situation from Other's POV
Looking-glass self
or
Self-reflected identity
: self image based on how we think others see us
f) by taking the role of The Other, we become self aware

a) start by imitating
b) progresses through play, via significant others – important figures in our socialization
c) simple-complex games
d ) generalized other – widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves
e) self continues to change with our social experiences, but we continue to react creatively
ii. Development of the Self
F. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
broader view of socialization
i. infancy- challenge of trust
ii. toddler-hood: the challenge of autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)
iii. preschool - the challenge of initiative (vs. guilt)
iv. pre-adolescene – challenge of industriousness (inferiority)
v. adolescence- challenge of gaining identity (vs. confusion)
vi. Young Adulthood – challenge of intimacy (vs. isolation)
vii. Middle Adulthood – challenge of making a difference (vs. self absorption)
viii. Old age – the challenge of integrity (vs. despair)
III. Agents of Socialization
2. School
3. Peer Group
4. Mass Media
may be most important in shaping our personality and in our socialization

a) intentional teaching done by parents, vs indirect:
b) environment they create – how children see the world

a) race and class have distinct subcultures
b) mixed races on the rise in USA
c) class determines what parents expect of children
lower standing expect obedience and conformity
high standing expect more imagination and creativity
different activities in leisure time, builds cultural capital
ii. race & class

a) social expectations
boys more physical expectations, outdoors, more aggressive
girls more time helping teacher, housekeeping chores, quieter


a) differs by class
b) direct curriculum vs hidden, latent affect of environment and rules
winners and losers, rankings, assessments
bureaucracy
i. gender
ii. what children learn
i. similar class, interests, age and position
ii. affects short term and long term interests and goals
iii. relative perspective on groups
iv. anticipatory socialization: learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

a) 98% of Americans own one
b) spent half of free time, about 4 hrs/ day – 6+ avg. for younger
c) as children get older, music videos and web surfing
d) boys favor video games, girls more music tv
e) african-american children spent more time watching tv, video games than white


a) American minorities Representative unfairly, stereotypes or missing
b) others say content is dominated by “cultural elite”
c) advancing “politically correct” causes: gay rights and feminism
d) Americans tend to watch TV that agrees with their views


a) some studies link time spent watching TV with aggression in children
b) educational and entertainment function, diverse cultures, discussions
c) also may shape how we think, behave
the means for delivering impersonal communication to a vast audience

i. the extent of Mass Media Exposure
ii. TV and Politics
iii. TV and Violence
Adolescence

Adulthood
Death & Dying
Old age
Childhood

a) most common in Africa and Asia
b) is “childhood” cultural relative, did we create it?
c) “hurried childhood” phenomenon
d) children have higher levels of stress and anxiety than a generation ago

i. building identity, “confusion” from cultural inconsistency
ii. phase differs from class to class, cultural to culture
Adulthood
i. career and family, personality is formed
ii. can be altered by major events
iii. Early adulthood: manage responsibilities, “do it all”
iv. middle adulthood: fragility of healthy, emotionally challenging
v. cultural harder on women
old age

i. elderly people now outnumber teenagers in USA
ii. this group controls most land and wealth
iii. industrial vs traditional societies
iv. life expectancy is increasingly
E. Death and Dying
i. 86% of people live to be 55 in US
ii. stages of dying

i. childhood labor- map
B. Adolescence




e) acceptance
a) denial
b) anger
c) negotiation
d) resignation
4. The Life Course
studied human
cognition
: how we think and understand
polarizing effect of media and politics
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