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Bullying

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by

Tiffany Stella

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Bullying

Bullying
What is Bullying?
“Unwanted aggressive behavior that is repeated over time for a real perceived power imbalance"
(stopbullying.gov)
Statistical Facts About Bullying
Types of Bullying
Cyber Bullying (cell phones, social media)
Group Activity 2
Think like an OT
How could an OT run a group session for the girls that made the burn book?
what theory is going to drive your decision?
list specific interventions
How could an OT run a group session for the girls that were written about in the burn book?
what theory is going to drive your decision?
list specific Interventions
Group Activity 2
Break off into different groups of 3 or 4 people
Let's share
your group's
ideas!
Group Activity 1
As you watch the video, list the types of bullying displayed
Group Activity 1
Break off into different groups of 3-4 people
Share the different types of bullying you observed in the video
How might each type of bullying affect each character's
education?
health?
safety?
social influence?
physical (face to face)
Verbal (gossip, notes, etc)
(Most common)
(Least common but growing dramatically)
Issues Associated with Bullying
Education
Decreases
Physical
Emotional

Social
Influence
Safety
Health issues
Bully:
30%
of young
adults bully

Bullied:
28%
6-12 graders
49%
students grade 4-12 reported being bullied at least once in the last month
Statistical Facts About Bullying
If intervened,
bullying stops
within 10 seconds
57%
of the time
Seen and
not intervene:
70.6%


50%

are LBGT
Cyberbullying:
9%
between 6-12
#
#
Community level
International level
Federal level
State level
Bullying is Not Just a U.S. Issue...
(Stopbullying.gov, n.d.)
(Stopbullying.gov, n.d.)
Campaigning to exclude others
Literature Review
on
Bullying

"Systematic review of occupational therapy and mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth"
Arbesman, Bazyk, & Nochajski
2013
American Journal of Occupational Therapy
Summary:
Overall, this article was a systematic review of research on children’s mental health
programs that reduced bullying were school-based antibullying programs
parent education
improved playground supervision
classroom management
OTs worked on social skill interventions and shown to improve social behaviors and reduce problem behaviors
"Using Social Norms to Reduce Bullying"
Perkins, Craig, & Perkins
2011
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
Summary:
Article that looked at bullying attitudes and behaviors and subsequent perception of peers
Looked at middle school students and surveyed the amount bullying via anonymous surveys
Students then rated their perception of the levels of bullying that were occurring at their school
Students believed that bullying perpetration, victimization, and probullying attitudes were occurring more often than reality
Why is it Important for Occupational Therapists to Know About Bullying?
Social Participation
Family stress and tension can result from the youth’s depression and anxiety related to bullying
Isolation due to fear of being bullied or feelings of inadequacy
Rejection from peers
Activities of Daily Living
Changes in eating patterns or loss of appetite
Education
Avoiding school to prevent being bullied

Experiencing illness associated with the stress of being bullied (i.e. stomachaches, headaches) resulting in frequent absenteeism
Difficulty concentrating and completing assignments due to anxiety or depression
(American Occupational Therapy Association, School Mental Health Work Group, 2013)
Work
Isolation and low morale leads to absenteeism
Difficulty completing work tasks due to poor concentration and anxiety
Play/Leisure
Lack of interest in previously enjoyed activities
Sleep/Rest
Disruptions in sleep patterns, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep
The Role of Occupational Therapy in Bullying
Strengthen physical and mental health and well-being for children
For children who
bully
For children who are
bullied
Promote
healthy relationships among children and youth
Provide
prevention, promotion, and intervention strategies
for positive behaviors and friendship promotion during everyday school activities
(Occupational therapists work to end bullying, 2015)
(Occupational therapists work to end bullying, 2015)
Engage
all students in classrooms, lunchrooms, playgrounds, and other settings where bullying may occur

Collaborate
with youth, educators, families, and other stakeholders
Recommend environmental and/or activities
modifications
conducive to friendship promotion and socialization
(American Occupational Therapy Association, 2015)
What Are Some Possible Occupational Therapy Interventions for Bullying?
School-Based Interventions
Analyze semi-structured times of the school day when bullying is more likely to occur (i.e. cafeteria, hallways, playground, bus transportation, etc.)

Identify students strengths and abilities and recommend or adapt their after-school activities for great participation
Recommend a broad range of recess activities so more students of varying abilities are engaged
Recommend lunchroom seating arrangements and consult cafeteria workers to promote friendship development and create a positive school climate
(Occupational Therapist Work to End Bullying, 2015)
Interventions Continued
Increase public awareness through health promotion campaigns and social marketing

Seek out peer-mentoring and role-modelling opportunities to decrease the stigma towards being socially “labeled” as the perpetrator the victim
Address barriers fulfill personally meaningful and rewarding goals
Example: scholastic, leisure, and social inclusion
Improve classroom concentration and applying skills for learning and social participation
Example: same as those used with ADHD children
(Pereira, 2010)
Levels of Intervention
From:
"Occupational therapy’s role in mental health promotion, prevention, & intervention with children & youth: Bullying prevention and friendship promotion"
(American Occupational Therapy Association, School Mental Health Work Group, 2013)
Tier 1:
Universal, Whole School Approaches
Teacher training
Having at least one high-quality friendship can help prevent children from being a victim of bullying. Children who have friends tend to be more sociable, self-confident, cooperative, and emotionally supportive
Focus on friendships
Observe interactions during unstructured times and less supervised places (i.e. recess, lunch, restrooms, hallways)
Student education (teach children appropriate ways for standing up to a bully)
Peer involvement to combat bullying
Improved playground supervision
Parent education
Classroom curricula and management strategies
School-wide rules
Tier 2: Target Strategies Focusing on Students at Risk of Bullying

Tier 3: Intensive, Individualized Services When You See or Hear Bullying
Goals of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Bullying
Empower students to recognize their own abilities to help reduce the likelihood of bullying
Participation in activities helps students stay engaged and connected in their community and builds self-esteem
Focus on participation in education, play and leisure, and social activities, to help support communication and interaction skills so children can navigate complex social situations

Provide supportive health promotion activities
Provide empowering anti-bullying solutions

(Pereira, 2010)
Resouces on Bullying for Occupational Therapists
Journal Articles

Juvonen, J., PhD., & Gross, E. F., PhD. (2008). Extending the school grounds?-bullying experiences in cyberspace. The Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.cuw.ezproxy.switchinc.org/docview/215670124?accountid=10249

Arbesman, M., Bazyk, S., & Nochajski, S. M. (2013). Systematic review of occupational therapy and mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(6), e120-30. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.cuw.ezproxy.switchinc.org/docview/1491997183?accountid=10249
Vanderbilt, D., & Augustyn, M. (2010). The effects of bullying. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20(7), 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2010.03.008
Websites
What is bullying. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2015, from stopbullying.gov website:
http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/


Books
(Toure, 2015)
Love Yourself
By: Khari
References
Created By:
Allison Brueggen
Kaitlyn Payton
Megan Wilkison
Tiffany Stella
Fall 2015
Let's share
your group's
ideas!
"Bullying Interventions: A Binocular Perspective"
Pepler
2006
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Summary:
This article looked at the prevalence, impact, and prevention programs for bullying
Common core elements of antibullying programs
whole school involvement
involvement of parents
development of school conferences
quality classroom management
duration and intensity of program
staff commitment to implementation
cultural appropriateness
"Weight- and Race-based Bullying"
Rosenthal, et al.
2015
Journal of Health Psychology
Summary:
Looked at 5th and 6th grade students from urban schools with low SES status
Those that identified as being bullied had greater emotional symptoms, greater experiences of weight and race based bullying compared to their peers
These individuals were associated with negative health impacts
had increased blood pressure and BMI
decreased overall self-rated health
May lead to further health implications into adulthood
Area of Growth for Occupational Therapists!
"Guidance Strategies to prevent and address preschool bullying"
Raisor & Thompson
2014
Young Children
Summary:
Article looked at bullying in preschool children and how behaviors can be reduced
Critical age when young children learn how to work with others
How to reduce bullying
acknowledge positive behaviors
educate children that bullying is not acceptable
be consistent in addressing behaviors
teaching children to talk to adults when they need help
Colorosa, B. (2004). The bully, the bullied, and the bystander. New York, NY: HarperCollins.


The End!
Thank You!!!
Thomas, J. (2011). Parent's guide to preventing and responding to bullying. School Bullying Council.
Drew, N. (2010). No kidding about bullying. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
(Stopbullying.com, n.d.)
(Occupational Therapists Work to End Bullying, 2015)
(Stopbullying.gov, n.d.)
(Stopbullying.gove, n.d.)
(Occupational Therapists Work to End Bullying, 2015)
(Odd Girl Out Movie, 2007)
(Rock Pop Tunes, 2014)
National Bullying Prevention Center (2015). Bullying info and facts. Retrieved from http://www.pacer.org/bullying/resources/info-facts.asp
(Stopbullying.com, n.d.)
(Occupational Therapists Work to End Bullying, 2015)
Arbesman, M., Bazyk, S., & Nochajski, S. M. (2013). Systematic review of occupational therapy and
mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(6), e120-30. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com.cuw.ezproxy.switchinc.org/docview/1491997183?accountid=1029
Colorosa, B. (2004). The bully, the bullied, and the bystander. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Drew, N. (2010). No kidding about bullying. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
Juvonen, J., PhD., & Gross, E. F., PhD. (2008). Extending the school grounds-Bullying experiences in
cyberspace. The Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com.cuw.ezproxy.switchinc.org/docview/215670124?accountid=10249
National Bullying Prevention Center (2015). Bullying info and facts. Retrieved from
http://www.pacer.org/bullying/resources/info-facts.asp
Odd Girl Out Movie [video file] (2007, January 21). Odd girl out part 4. Retrieved from
Pepler, D. J. (2006). Bullying interventions: A binocular perspective. Journal of the Canadian
Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15(1), 16-20. doi:
10.3389/fpubh.2014.00007
Perkins, H. W., Craig, D. W., & Perkins, J. M. (2011). Using social norms to reduce bullying: A
research intervention among adolescents in five middle schools. Group Processes &
Intergroup Relations, 14(5), 703-722. doi:10.1177/1368430210398004
Raisor, J. M., & Thompson, S. D. (2014). Guidance strategies to prevent and address preschool bullying. Young Children, 69(2), 70. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com.cuw.ezproxy.switchinc.org/docview/1621404903?accountid10249
Rock Pop Tunes [video file] (2014, November 28). Mean girls burn book. Retrieved from
www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QtwkIKYTIk&feature=youtu.be&t=146
Rosenthal, L., Earnshaw, V. A., Carroll-Scott, A., Henderson, K. E., Peters, S. M., McCaslin, C., & Ickovics, J. R. (2015). Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(4), 401-412. doi:10.1177/1359105313502567
Thomas, J. (2011). Parent's guide to preventing and responding to bullying. School Bullying Council.
Vanderbilt, D., & Augustyn, M. (2010). The effects of bullying. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20(7), 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2010.03.008
Stopbullying.gov (n.d.). What is bullying. Retrieved from
http://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/
Toure, K. [video file] (2015, August 31). Love yourself. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=21LHPg57nxg

Images:
Boy being bullied by three girls [photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www.livescience.com/41036-bullying-syndrome-maltreatment-affects-health.html
Three children smiling [photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www.more4kids.info/713/helping-kids-make-friends/
Three children giving a thumbs-up [photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www.philly.com/philly/blogs/healthy_kids/Reading-Writing-and-Making
Friends.html
Five children sitting together [photograph]. Retrieved from
http://primetimeschools.com/childrens-friendships/

References
Full transcript