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Introduction to Computer Networks

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Roger Woodard

on 9 July 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Computer Networks

Introduction to
Computer Networking

Roger Woodard
Fall 2013

What is a computer network?
A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium.
Every network includes:
At least two computers
Networking Interface Cards (NIC)
A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless is increasingly possisble
Network operating system software
Microsoft Windows NT or 2000
Novell Netware
There are several different types of networks
LANs (Local Area Networks)

WANs (Wide Area Networks)



MANs (Metropolitan Area)

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
LANs (Local Area Networks)
LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus.
LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard network protocals and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.
WANS (Wide Area Networks)
Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically seperate
This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone linkes, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services.
The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, e-mail, the World Wide Web, and newsgroups, and other information.
The internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but is now a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.
An Intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type protocols, but available only within that organization
With the advancements made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing Intranets. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.
MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks)
MANs refer to a network of computers within a city
A MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN).
VPNs (Virtual Private Networks)
VPNs extend private networks across a public network, such as the Internet
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) enables a computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were directly connected to the private network, while benefiting from the functionality, security, and management policies of the private network.
Categories of Networks
Client-Server Model
Peer-to-Peer Model
OSI Model
Client-Server Model
The Client-Server network s the most efficient way to provide databases and management of applications such as spreadsheets, accounting, communications and document management, network management, and centralized file storage.
The client-server model is basically an implementation of distributed or cooperative processing. At the heart of the model is the concept of splitting application functions between a client and a server processor. The division of labor between the difference processors enables the application designer to place an application function on the processor that is most appropriate for that function. This lets the software designer optimize the use of processors - providing the greatest possible return on investment for the hardware.
Peer-to-Peer Model
In Peer-to-Peer networking there are no dedicated servers or hierarchy among the computers. All of the computers are equal and therefore known as peers.
Peer-to-Peer networks are good choices for needs of small organizations where the users are allocated in the same general area, security is not an issue, and the organization and the network will have limited growth within the foreseeable future.
The OSI Model: Open System Interconnection
Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model has become an International standard and serves as a guide for networking. It is the best known and most widely used guide to describe networking environments. It provides a description of how network hardware and software work together in a layered fashion to make communication possible. It also helps with trouble shooting by providing a frame of reference that describes how components are supposed to function.
Network Architectures
Ethernet LAN Design
Token Ring
Ethernet LAN Design
Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use
Ethernet is popular because is strikes a good balance between speed, cost, and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support virtually all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an idea networking for most computers today.
Token Ring
Token ring is another form of network configuration which differs from Ethernet in that all messages are transferred in a unidirectional manner along the ring at all times. Data is transmitted in tokens, which are passed along the ring and viewed by each device. When a device sees a messages addressed to it, that device copies the message and then marks that message as being read. As the message makes its way along the ring, it eventually gets back to the sender who now notes that the message was received by the intended device. The sender can then remove the message and free that token for use by others.
FDDI (Fiber-Distributed Data Interface)
FDDI is a standard for data-transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200km (124 miles). The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring protocol. In addition to being large geographically, an FDDI LAN can support thousands of user.
Networking Protocols
Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate
A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or "packets."

Examples of protocols: TCP/IP, IPX, DECnet, Appletalk, NetBIOS/NetBEUI

Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as "protocol independence."

Transmission Control
Protocol/internet Protocol

Internetwork Package
Exchange/Sequenced Packet

NetBIOS Extended User Interface

File Transfer Protocol

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Network File Services

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol









The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for intranets using the internet.
The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for intranets using the internet.

This is a standard protocol for Novell Network Operating System.

This is a Microsoft protocol that doesn't support routing to other networks.
Used to send and receive files from a remote host.

Used for the web to send documents that are encoded in HTML.
Allows network nodes or workstations to access files and drives as if they were their own.
Used to send e-mail over a network.

Used to connect to a host and emulate a terminal that the remote server can recognize.
Some Important Protocols and their job
Network Topologies
A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN
There are three topologies: Star, Ring, and Bus
Star Toplogy
In a star topology each node has
a dedicated set of wires connecting it to a central network hub. Since all traffic passes through the hub, the hub becomes a central point for isolating network problems and gathering network statistics.
Ring Topology
A ring topology features a logically closed loop. Data packets travel in a single direction around the ring from one network device to the next. Each network device acts as a repeater, meaning it regenerates the signal.
Bus Topology
The Bus topology, each node (computer, server, peripheral, etc.) attaches to a common cable. This topology most often serves as the backbone for a network. In some instances, such as in classrooms or labs, a bus will connect small workgroup.
Additional Networking Resources
Introduction to Computer Networking
Types of Networking Media
Networking Hardware
Types of Communication
Networking Components
Network Addressing
History of Networking
TCP/IP Addressing
Network Connectivity
Wireless Network Technology
Wireless Network Technology (Continued)
Firewall Networking
Network Troubleshooting
Additional Resources
Short but in-Depth Video Lectures
Intro to Networking
Network Media Types
Networking Hardware
Communication Types
Networking Components
Wireless Networks: 1
Network Addressing
History of Networking
TCP/IP Addessing
Network Connectivity
Wireless Networks: 2
Firewall Networking
Troubleshooting Networks
References: http://www.youtube.com/user/W1Channel?feature=watch
Full transcript