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Hydrothermal Vent Food Web

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Liam Tighe

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Hydrothermal Vent Food Web

References
Discovery of the "Yeti Crab". (2006, March). Retrieved October 10, 2013, from
http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2006/yeti-crab.html
Mills, C.E. (2011, January 27). Stauromedusae/Staurozoa. Retrieved October 10,
2013, from http://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/Stauromedusae.html
Hungry Dwellers of the Pacific and Atlantic Hydrothermal Vents
Why It Matters
Atlantic Top Order Carnivores
Atlantic 1st Order Carnivores
Atlantic Primary Consumers
Pacific Carnivore
Pacific primary consumers
Primary Producers
They are natural plumbing systems that transport heat and chemicals from the interior of the Earth and that help regulate global ocean chemistry.
Exhibit extreme adaptability of life, may also indicate towards origins of early life
Potential for seafloor mining from mineral resources
Alcanivorax borkumensis: bacteria that can metabolically break down crude oil. Used in Gulf Oil Spill.
Thermus aquaticus: Bacteria with Taq Polmerase
Scaly foot gastropod: The United States military is currently funding research on the armor of the snail in hopes of developing insights into new military armor designs
The dissolved iron that is released from some Mid-Atlantic vents is important for maintaining plankton health, as it is a limiting factor for plankton development.
Abiotic Factors
Sunlight: NONE! =O
Depth: 3000-4000 meters
Temperature: about 2 degrees Celcius, then about 400 at the vents (300-464)
pH Levels: very acidic: ranges from 2.8-4
Pressure: 300 atm
Salinity: 3.5%
Oxygen: 4.87-6.060 ml/l
CO2 levels: 4-215 mmol/kg
H2S: 2.3mM
Sodium 537 mM
Calcium 636 mM
Dissolved Hydrogen: .1-50 mmol/kg
CH4: .05 - 4.5 mmol/Kg
Chemoautotrophic bacteria use the chemical energy generated by mixing the reduced chemicals in hydrothermal fluids with deep-ocean ambient seawater to fix inorganic carbon and produce biomass. They often use Sulfides and Methanes as inorganic sources.

ex:
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (1)
Desulfonauticus submarinus
Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus (2)
Desulfovibrio vulgaris
Desulfovibrio gigas
Desulfobacterium autotrophicum Desulfobacter latus
Primary Producers
1
2

Riftia pachyptila

Alvinella pompeiana (AKA Pompeii worm): grey "fur" is actually bacteria. (Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, and Desulfobacter latus)
Primary Consumers: Pacific
Gastropod: Crysomallon squamiferum (Scaly foot Gastropod)

Limpet: Lepetodrilus
Bivalves
Clam: Vescomyid Clams: Calyptogena magnifica

Bathymodiolid Mussels

Pacific 1st Order Carnivores
Fish: Zoarcid Fish: Thermarces cerberus

Crab: Brachyuran crabs
Pacific Primary Consumers
Anemones
Thymopides laurentae
Octopus: Grimpoteuthis
aka DUMBO!! =D
Rimicaris aff. exoculata
Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis
Branchipolynoe seepensis
Lucernaria janetae
Shrimp: Alvinocaris lusca
Mirocaris fortunata
Pachycara saldanhai
Segonzacia mesatlantica
Maractis rimicarivora
Cirrothauma magna
Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis
Hydrolagus affinis
Yeti Crab
References
1. Govenar, B. 2012. Energy transfer through food webs at hydrothermal vents: Linking the lithosphere to the biosphere. Oceanography 25(1):246–255, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.23.
2. German, C. Ramirez-llodra, E. Shank, T. 2007. Biodiversity and Biogeography
of hydrothermal Vent Species. Oceanography 20(1):30-41, http://www.tos.org/oceanography/archive/20-1_ramirez_llodra.pdf.
3. G. Sancho, C.R. Fisher, S. Mills, F. Micheli, et al. 2005. Selective predation by the zoarcid fish Thermarces cerberus at hydrothermal vents, Deep Sea Research Part I. Oceanographic Research Papers 52 (5): 837-844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.12.002.
4. BBC. (2010, August). Animal fact files: Vent shrimp. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/
Larson, R. (2010, August 20). Deep sea vent. Retrieved from http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Deep_sea_vent

Banerjee, Pronab K. (2005). Oceanography for Beginners. Retrieved from
http://books.google.com/books?id=vAYJwulleY8C&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=Rimicaris+aff.+exoculata+mid-atlantic+ridge&source=bl&ots=-4yLBuCsqF&sig=RXtGjNEgoMoeOx6ip7sybreSySg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PoJNUsnPDILY9QT_nYDIBw&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Rimicaris%20aff.%20exoculata%20mid-atlantic%20ridge&f=false
BBC. (July 2005). Vent mussels: Bathymodiolus thermophilus. Retrieved from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/factfiles/molluscs/vent_mussels_bg.shtml
Branchipolynoe seepensis. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/2979731/details
Cirrothauma magna. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/591147/overview
Dittel, Ana. (2008). VENT CRAB: Crabby Questions. Retrieved from
http://www.expeditions.udel.edu/extreme08/creature/ventcrab/
Fabri, M-C., Bargain, A., Briand, P., Gebruk, A., Fouquet, Y., Morineaux, M., & Desbruyeres, D. (2010). The
hydrothermal vent community of a new deep-sea field, Ashadze-1, 12°58’N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Journal of the Marine Biological Associations of the United Kingdom, 1-13.
doi:10.1017/S0025315410000731
Hydrolagus affinis. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/205897/details
Maractis rimicarivora. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/421593/details
McLean, James H. (1992). A New Species of Pseudorimula (Fissurellacea: Clypeosectidae) from Hydrothermal
Vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge [PDF]. THE NAUTILUS, 106(3), 115-18. Retrieved from
http://decapoda.nhm.org/pdfs/32465/32465.pdf
National Geographic. (2011, September 11). National Geographic – Drain the Ocean (Part Four). Retrieved
from
h t t p : // w w w . y o u t u b e . c o m / w a t c h ? v = L O a H 6 u s I d 3 0 & l i s t = PL0CCB07C980A015CB
Ohara et al. (2012, February 21). [PDF Table] Supporting Information: Table S1. List of operational taxonomic
units (OUT’s) to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of vesicomyid clams (Fig. 5B). Available from
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/8/2831/suppl/DCSupplemental
Pachycara saldanhai. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/220861/details
Poppick, Laura. (2013, August 20). Huge Iron-Rich Plume Discovered Beneath Atlantic Ocean. Retrieved from
http://www.livescience.com/39027-iron-plume-atlantic.html
Pseudorimula midatlantica. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/3048184/details
Randall, Liz. (2011, May 7). Vulcanoctopus Hydrothermalis. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://norwichgl111hydrothermalvents.blogspot.com
Rimicaris exoculata. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/2950456/details
Segonzacia mesatlantica. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from
http://eol.org/pages/2950048/details
Shillito, B., Le Bris, N. Hourdez, S., Ravaux, J., Cottin, D., Caprais, JC., … Gail, F. (2006, March).
Temperature resistance studies on the deep-sea vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata [Abstract]. The Journal of
Experimental Biology, 209(Pt 5), 945-55. Available from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16481583
Thymopides laurentae. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retreived from
http://eol.org/pages/7158807/details
Van Dover, Cindy. (2000). The Ecology of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents. Retrieved from
http://books.google.com/books?id=uaXuCVuYVDUC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=bathymodiolid+mussels+mid-atlantic+vents&source=bl&ots=ZIV6a_weZt&sig=cg7R-3sCEbUEKkb1TmjvDtfC3RY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qANSUpLuM4nA8ATN1YHQCg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=bathymodiolid%20mussels%20mid-atlantic%20vents&f=false
Pseudorimula midatlantica
Munidopsis andamanica
(squat lobster)
http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-videos/hydrothermal-vent-creatures
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