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Copy of Anatomy and Physiology Reproductive Unit Project

By:Adriana Perez 5th Period May 24 2012

Brian Levings

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Anatomy and Physiology Reproductive Unit Project

Reproductive Unit Project
By :Adriana Perez What is Spermatogenesis? Spermatogenesis is sperm production. -Most of the fluid in semen is made up of secretions
from the male reproductive organs.

-The prostate gland secretes about 30% of the fluid. What is it made of? Each sperm has 3 parts: A head, a middle piece and a tail. Parts of the sperm http://science.kukuchew.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/sperm-structure.jpg An acrosome at the head of the tip produces enzymes that help penetrate the female ovum. (Egg)

The middle piece (a.k.a body)contains mitochondria structures that provide energy for the sperm. Sperm Production and travel path Sperm is produced in the seminferous tubules of the testes.
The sperm then moves through a maze of tiny ducts into the epidermis where they mature.
The sperm eventually drains into the http://www.performer5pills.com/siteimages/semen-analysis2.jpg Sperm is produced in the seminferous tubules of the testes.
The sperm then moves through a maze of tiny ducts into the epidermis where they mature.
The sperm eventually drains into the vas deferns that travels up through the scrotum inside the spermatic cord.
The vas deferns continues upward to the bladder where it is joined by the excretory duct of the seminal vessicle forming the ejaculatory duct.
The ejaculatory duct joins with the urethra within the prostate.
Urethra extends to the tip of the penis. Pathway of Sperm Pathway Of Sperm. http://vss.sd22.bc.ca/hpp/courses/bi12/ch21/pathsperm.png All of the male reproductive organs are regulated by testosterone. Only 2.5% of the male testicle is testosterone.
The Sperm that is ejaculated today was produced 75 days ago.
The Role Of Testosterone in Males http://oglesandobservations.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/testosterone_structure.png The growth process in which the primary egg
cell becomes a mature Ovum.
OOgenesis The egg development starts even before the female that carries it is born.
8 to 20 weeks after the fetus has started to grow; cells that are to become mature ova, have been multiplying and by the time that the female is born, all the egg cells that the ovaries will release during the active reproductive years.
The primary ova remains dormant until just prior
to ovulation, when the egg is released from the ovary.
-The egg cell remains as a primary ovum until the
time for its release from the ovary arrives.
-The egg then undergoes cell division.
-The nucleus splits, so that half of it's chromosomes
go to one cell and half to another.
-The secondary ovum, grows into the ovary until it
reaches maturation, it then breaks loose and is carried into the fallopian tubes, the secondary egg cell is suitable for fertilization by the male sperm cells. http://img.sparknotes.com/content/testprep/bookimgs/sat2/biology/0003/oogenesis.gif Oogenesis -

-Estrogen and progesterone are steroid hormones
produced in a woman's ovaries.
-They function as sex hormones, promoting female development and fertility.
-In pregnancy estrogen produced by the ovaries and
later by the placenta, help the uterus grow, maintains the uterus lining, steps up blood circulation and regulates the production of other key hormones.
Role of Estrogen in Females: During Pregnancy http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/10341.jpg Progesterone keeps the placenta functoning properly
and the uterine lining healthy and thick, and it stimulates the growth of the breast tissue. It also cracks down on pre-pregnancys contractions of smooth muscles. Role of Progesterone in females: http://www.internationaldrugmart.com/drug-images/big/progesterone_prochieve_100mg_softgel.jpg Menstration- Having periods, it is a part of the female reproductive cycle that's starts when a girl becomes sexually mature at the time of puberty.

-A womans internal sex organs consist of 2 ovaries, the fallopian tubes , the uterus and the vagina. The ovaries contain the eggs with which the woman is born and during each period, a single egg will ripen and mature due to the action of hormones circulating the blood stream. If the egg is fertilized the woman becomes pregnant. If not it slips away ans menstruation begins. MENSTRUAL CYCLE http://www.whatcontraceptiveareyou.com.au/lib/img/glbl/yourcycle/28day.jpg The Menstrual cycle: 1.Gamete Formation(n+n): Eggs and sperm are produced in specialized tissues.

2.Fertilization: The union of eggs and sperm. It occurs in the fallopian tubes and there are 200 million sperm to one egg.

3. Cleavage: The first days and weeks after conception miotic cell divisions begin, covering the zygote to a multicellular organism.
Day1: First cleavage- 1 cell becomes 2
Day2: Second Cleavage-4 cell stage
Day3: 6-12 cell stage
Day 4: 16-32 cell stage, solid ball of cells-morula.
Most animals, including humans go through 6 stages of embryonic development: Zygote Formation Day 5: Solid morulla develops into hollow, fluid blastula. the embryo will develop from the inner cell mass.

Day 6-7: Blastocyst attaches to the endometrium and burrows in; implantation. The blastocyst starts to secrete, human chronic gonatotropin, which stimulates estrogen.

Day 10-14:Pregnancy becomes established.

Day 21 and so on.. Week 3 Embryo develops all organ systems. Day 22-Develops cardiac cells, early heart begins to beat.
Zygote formation http://www.healthofchildren.com/images/gech_0001_0003_0_img0218.jpg Exhaustion
Altered appetite
Heart burn and indigestion
Weight gain
Yeast Infections
Breast pain and discharge
Effects of pregnancy on the mother: http://www.ilovepregnancy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/wants-to-get-pregnant.jpg Preterm labor- A woman is in preterm labor if she begins having regular contractions that causes her cervix to start to open up or thin out before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

Prodromal labor "False Labor"-Persistent contractions with no signs of cervical progress or change in maternal emotions.

-First stage: Early Labor
Contractions gradually become longer and stronger and closer together.
Eventually they come every five minutes, lasting about 40 to 60 seconds

-Second stage: Pushing the little one out
They will make the mother to be get in pushing position of her choice.
The mother will push at regular intervals, usually three times with each contraction.

Initiation and stages of labor: -Third stage: Delivery

This last stage of child birth lasts from 5 to 20 minutes or more. Wild contractions that last about a minute each, will help separate the placenta from the uterine wall and move it through the birth canal so the mother can push it out. http://www.babies-cute.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Pretty-Newborn-Baby.jpg
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