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Trace Elements

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Angelica Betito

on 1 April 2017

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Transcript of Trace Elements

Transport of Trace Elements
Physical, Geochemical, Biological
Trace Elements
Biogeochemical Cycles
Trace Elements
Trace Elements
Natural Sources of Trace Elements
Human Interventions to Trace Elements Cycling

if consumed at sufficiently high levels for prolonged periods
Catalysts in enzyme systems
Trace Metals
Minerals present
in living tissues
in small amounts
Toxic
Fe
Zn
Mn
Cu
Mo
I
Co
Cr
Se
The nature of the parent rock determines the trace element content of soils
Rocks
Volcanic Emissions
Undersea Smokers
Ultra Basic and Basic Rocks (Co, Zn, Ni, CR)
Ferromagnesian minerals (Fe, Mg)
Acidic Rocks (Ba, Pb,Cu, Mn, B, Mo, Se)
Undersea smokers
These vents affected the composition of seawater and deposited many valuable minerals including trace elements.
Superheated water dissolves and redistributes from the miles of buried rock all the vital elements necessary to sustain life including Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe.
Physical Processes
Geochemical Processes
Chemical weathering
Mineral Precipitation
Volatilization
Biological / Ecological
Industrial
Municipal Waste Incinerators, Landfills, Sewage Sludge Disposal
Agricultural
Household
Coal Mining, Power Generation
Metal Mining, Mineral
Processing, Smelting
Oil, Natural Gas Production, Petroleum Utilization
Impacts of Trace Elements
vary among species
Animals
Environment
As heavy metals, these elements are toxic to plants at high concentration (contaminants).

In
Agroecosystems
it is either inherited or comes from inputs from human activities (extraction, production, use and release),


Lack of these elements causes deficiency disease
Toxic in excess
damage to cell structures
decrease in organic matter
decline in soil nutrients
reduced photosynthetic activities
Cu B Zn Mn Fe Mo
B for cell development and plant metabolism
Cl in plant photosynthesis
Cu to metabolize N
Fe assists in chorophyll manufacturing and biochemical processes
Mn for chlorophyll production
Mo for use of N
Zn in enzyme development and hormones (legumes to form seeds)

Excess
toxicity
promote oxidative stress (damaging cells and tissues by free radicals or oxidants)
impair animal's immune status

These elements occur for only 0.02% in the body weight
as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive centers.
Humans
Microminerals
Fe
Deficiency
metabolic imbalances
pathological deficiency diseases
impaired growth and fertility
feed refusal
Trace elements exert pharmacological actions if they are ingested in amounts several to ten times higher than the nutritional requirement. Excessive ingestion as medicines occasionally lead to poisoning.
Cu
Zn
Mn
I
Co
Se
energy transport
oxygen storage and transport

stored in liver
enzyme component for metabolic processes
protein biosynthesis
gene activity
enzyme activator
energy metabolism
formation of thyroid hormones
Vit B12
cell protection
*accumulate in feces and manure
Fe
I
F-
Cu
Zn
Cr
Se
Mn
Mo
Preparations of these elements are available commercially and inappropriate use of these preparations may cause excess states of these elements.
Insufficient intake can cause nutritional deficiency.
Source and Transport
Human Interventions
Impact on Species and Environment

4Pics 20Seconds
overuse of fertilizers

Contamination in Marine Coastal Systems
hinder plant growth
increased potential for environmental contamination
Above optimum N and P levels, can lead to excessive plant and algal growth
Degrading drinking water, fisheries and recreational areas
Uptake by plants



ingestion, inhalation, absorption in organisms


Bio-accumulation in the food chain
Physical erosion, landslide, debris flow
Water transport of sediments
Wind, atmospheric (dusts, aerosols)
Full transcript